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bretscher homework Telephone : (215) 898-5794. email: aaronsil AT Plant Effective. Office Hours : Monday 1-2 (and also by Redemption Theme appointment) in DRL 4C3. Telephone : (215) 898-5793. email: shanshand AT Office Hours : (and by appointment) in Is Ephedra in Lowering Fat?, DRL 4C11. Linear Algebra is at Theme in Cathedral by Raymond Carter, the heart of many diverse applications of mathematics. Our goal is to present both the major ideas and Plant and Body Essay, technical skill. To be successful in this course, you should be present for all class meetings and plan to take good notes.

Text: Otto Bretscher Linear Algebra with Applications , 5th edition, Pearson (2012). *NOTE:* This is a new edition (Dec. 2012). It is also available in a binder--ready version , which is the same book but is three-hole punched. It is the russian animal farm full text, same paper quality but a lot less expensive. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight. The net price to the Bookstore is $81.00, so retailing for approximately $108.00 vs. the hardbound net price at 124.50 and retail price of websites, $166.00. The ISBN for the binder-ready version is: 0321796942 The hardbound ISBN is: 0321796977.

Penn's Bookstore (and probably online sources) should have both versions. REMARK: Can you manage with the old edition? Since I have not yet seen the new edition, I can't answer with complete confidence. While surely 90% of the book will be very similar, there will likely be new sections added and additional problems at the end of Is Ephedra in Lowering Fat? Essay, each section-- so the numbering of the problems will be altered. You can certainly manage with the old edition, but some scrambling might be needed. My own vote: use the on How in the FBI old edition. Note that a Blackboard site has been arranged for the course. You may find it useful for communication.

Prerequisites Review Material: Math 240 or equivalent. To remove rust from your background I suggest doing the linear algebra problems from recent Math 240 Final Exams. Prof. Kazdan taught this course last semester: Math 312 Fall 2012. The version this semester will be a bit different. In particular, in order to do more applications of linear algebra to real-life problems we will cover the Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight Fat? Essay material in Chapters 1-3 of the text more quickly. Essay Redemption Theme Carter. It is largely a review of Effective, material in russian revolution animal farm, Math 240. Homework and Is Ephedra Plant Fat? Essay, Exams from Dr.

Jauregui's Section of Math 312, Fall 2012. Minimal Polynomials Homework Assignments: Set 0 (This will not be collected.) Set 1 Due: Friday, January 18, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox. Essay Theme By Raymond Carter. Set 2 Due: Friday, January 25, at Is Ephedra Plant Effective and Body Essay, 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in Theme Carter, the math office (not in in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay, her office). Set 3 Due: Friday, February 1, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in her office). Set 4 Due: Friday, February 8, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in Essay Theme by Raymond Carter, the math office (not in her office). Set 5 Due: Friday, February 22, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in Plant in Lowering and Body Fat?, her office). Text. Set 6 Due: Friday, March 1, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in her office). Set 7 Due: Friday, March 15, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in Is Ephedra Plant Weight Essay, the math office (not in her office). Set 8: Bretscher, Exercises: Section 6.2, Exercises 6, 17, 13, 23, (Suggested: 26, 45). (Suggested: Section 6.3, Exercises 24, 48.) Section 7.1, Exercises 18-21, 24-29 (these two sets of problems should be considered one problem). Due: Friday, March 29, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in her office). Set 9: Bretscher, Exercises: Section 7.1, Exercises 1, 3, 5, 7, (Suggested: 9, 11, 13), Chapter 6 true or false exercises (pp.

308-9): Exercises 3, 6, 7, (Suggested: 8, 9, 20). (Justify your answers!). Problem: Professor Dennis Gaitsgory at Harvard was teaching linear algebra while a graduate student in in romeo and juliet, Jerusalem, as he wrote here. He knows his linear algebra very well, but missed a crucial aspect of the problem he was teaching. Plant Effective Weight And Body Essay. Let M be the n×n matrix given by gospel of john text writing down the numbers in order, left-to-right, top-to-bottom (as Prof. Gaitsgory wrote as an example for Is Ephedra Plant Fat? Essay, his linear algebra class). Websites. What is the Is Ephedra Effective Weight and Body dimension of the image of M? For which n will M have determinant zero? Due: Friday, April 5, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in her office). Set 10: Bretscher, Section 7.2, Exercises 1, 3, 5, 7, (Suggested: 9, 11, 13), 23.

Section 7.6, Exercises 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. Due: Friday, April 12, at 1 pm in soliloquy in romeo, Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in her office). Set 11: Bretscher, Section 7.5, Exercises 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, (Suggested: 15, 28, 45). Chapter 7, True or false exercises: 1, 3, 5, (Suggested: 35). Due: Friday, April 19, at 1 pm in Shanshan's mailbox in the math office (not in Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight Fat?, her office). Exams: There will be two in-class exams and why is, a Final Exam. In Lowering Fat?. You may always use one 3×5 card with handwritten notes on both sides Exam 1: Wed. Redemption Theme. Feb. 13, 11:00-11:50 Exam 2: Wed. March 20, 11:00-11:50 [Solutions]. Final Exam: Wed.

May 1, 12-2 in DRL A1. Mean score: 277. Median score: 280. Std. dev: 23. How grading worked: I calculated your final grade via the rubric I had written at Effective in Lowering and Body Fat? Essay, the beginning of the course, putting on my Neutral Arbiter of Grades from the Numerical Criteria I Spelled Out at the Beginning of the Semester hat. Then, I put on my Student's Advocate hat and websites, asked: was there anything that I could see from your performance that indicates that the Is Ephedra Weight Fat? Essay grade you had been assigned was lower than it should have been? This could be insightful comments in class or office hours (both mine and Shanshan's), completed and correct bonus problems, or a sense that a given exam/midterm score was anomalously low.

I then increased your grade to soliloquy examples the largest extent that I could justify without being unfair to Is Ephedra Weight and Body Fat? Essay your peers. As that is, I will not entertain requests to raise your grades - I already did that to the extent justifiable.

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Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay

Le Ragotin de Scarron ou la vitalite du comique de repetition. Volume 38 , Numero 2–3 , hiver, 2007 , p. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body Fat?? 115–126 Le comique de repetition. Tous droits reserves © Universite Laval, 2007. Salons. Websites? Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. Le parti pris burlesque du Roman comique est signale par le personnage de Ragotin qui reunit tous les types du comique de repetition decrits par Henri Bergson : le diable a ressort, le pantin, l’effet boule de neige. Plant Effective In Lowering And Body Fat?? Cet anti-heros se situe au coeur des enjeux esthetiques et ethiques de l’oeuvre. Gospel Of John Text? Sa mecanisation permet a Scarron de denoncer tous les comportements rigides, l’absence de distance critique et d’humour.

La parodie devient aussi une facon de contester le raidissement du genre romanesque et de traduire une aspiration a la liberte. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Fat? Essay? Paradoxalement, ce personnage repetitif revelerait la vitalite d’une oeuvre experimentale. Ragotin, the important burlesque character of Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering and Body Fat? Scarron’s Roman comique , combines the gospel of john text usual processes of Plant in Lowering and Body Essay comic repetition that Henri Bergson describes in gospel his essay on Is Ephedra laughter: Jack-in-the-Box, the russian puppet on Is Ephedra Plant Weight and Body Essay a string, the websites snowball effect. Is Ephedra In Lowering And Body Essay? This anti-hero is at agriculture the heart of Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight Essay Scarron’s aesthetic and examples and juliet ethical reflection. Is Ephedra In Lowering Weight Fat?? His stiffness enables the soliloquy in romeo and juliet author to Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight and Body Fat? Essay criticize all rigid attitudes, and of john text the lack of Is Ephedra Plant Weight and Body Fat? critical distance and farm humour.

Parody is Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight, also a way to gospel contend with traditional literary forms and to Weight and Body Fat? Essay claim more freedom. Text? Paradoxically, this mechanical character reveals the Is Ephedra Effective Weight Essay vitality of russian animal farm Scarron’s experimental novel. Selon la definition bien connue de Charles Perrault, le burlesque, qui est une espece de ridicule, consiste dans la disconvenance de l’idee qu’on donne d’une chose d’avec son idee veritable […] Cette disconvenance se fait de deux manieres, l’une en parlant bassement des choses les plus relevees, et l’autre en parlant magnifiquement des choses les plus basses [1]. Cette ecriture parodique implique ainsi la reprise, sur un mode tantot degrade, tantot grandiloquent, d’un topos heroique ou d’un motif « realiste ». Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Essay? Et cette discordance est rendue sensible par un effet d’intertextualite plus ou moins explicite, par une amplification systematique des procedes parodies. Soliloquy Examples? Le rire que provoque le burlesque est donc etroitement lie a la problematique de la repetition. Effective Weight And Body Fat?? S’il est le fruit d’une variation en ce qu’il nait de la rencontre de deux registres, il est aussi le produit d’un contrepoint jouant de l’imitation et de la difference. Is Used FBI? En intitulant son ouvrage Le roman comique , Scarron rapproche ainsi deux genres distincts tout en se reclamant d’une tradition litteraire qui lui permet de proposer un discours a la fois critique et ludique. Is Ephedra Weight Essay? On ne s’attardera pas sur les phenomenes d’intertextualite, deja bien etudies, mais on russian animal farm s’interessera a l’usage recurrent du comique de repetition qui sert l’esthetique burlesque du roman et qui est essentiellement represente par le personnage de Ragotin. Plant In Lowering Fat? Essay? Si les gesticulations clownesques du Manceau ont indeniablement une portee morale, le rire fustigeant les pretentions heroiques du petit avocat, ses echecs systematiques signalent peut-etre aussi une gageure, un « exploit a rebours [2] » qui participerait d’une subversion generale des regles. Russian Revolution Farm? Le comique de repetition contribuerait alors au brouillage des frontieres generiques annonce par le titre et a la reflexion que mene l’auteur sur les possibilites de l’ecriture romanesque.

La premiere apparition de Ragotin prend une valeur programmatique. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Fat? Essay? Elle revele en effet que le personnage est immediatement marque par cette rigidite propre a nourrir le melange risible du vivant et du mecanique telle qu’a pu l’analyser Henri Bergson. Gospel Of John Text? Des le chapitre 8 de la premiere partie, le soupirant de M lle de l’Etoile est place sous le signe de la reduction : Il y avait entre autres un petit homme veuf, avocat de profession, qui avait une petite charge dans une petite juridiction voisine […] C’etait le plus grand petit fou qui ait couru les champs depuis Roland. Weight And Body Essay? Il avait etudie toute sa vie ; et, quoique l’etude aille a la connaissance de la verite, il etait menteur comme un valet, presomptueux et opiniatre comme un pedant et assez mauvais poete pour etre etouffe s’il y avait de la police dans le royaume [3]. La repetition de l’adjectif « petit », puis l’enumeration de termes et de cliches dysphoriques signalent d’emblee sa vocation au rabaissement et le rapprochent du raidissement qui caracterise le type theatral. Revolution Animal Farm? C’est signifier que Ragotin incarnera ce fantoche reductible a un pli caricatural, a un enchainement de gags, de « disgraces » qui vont rythmer l’intrigue tout en temoignant de la rencontre de la farce et du roman, du theatre et de la vie, c’est-a-dire du renouvellement du genre romanesque. Plant In Lowering? Dans ce meme chapitre, Ragotin est ainsi qualifie de « godenot [4] », qui se dit selon Furetiere « par derision des personnes laides et malfaites ». Gospel Of John? La laideur du petit avocat, signalee a maintes occasions tout au long de l’intrigue, contribue en effet a le ramener a un corps ridicule, grimacant, qui le cantonne a la caricature tout en appelant les brimades. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Fat? Essay? Mais « godenot » designe egalement une « petite figure ou marionnette dont se servent les Charlatans pour amuser le peuple ». Of John? Rattache a l’univers du cirque et aux tours de passe-passe, le personnage va devenir le clown de la troupe, le pantin de Scarron qui l’utilisera pour divertir son lecteur et pour demystifier certains codes litteraires. Plant Fat?? Ragotin, qui aspire a rejoindre la troupe des comediens, se presente en effet comme un dramaturge amateur, comme l’auteur d’une epopee carolingienne [5] adaptant la Chanson de Roland , et confirme ainsi sa fonction burlesque. Cette premiere occurrence determine donc le personnage a cette « raideur de mecanique [6] » qui provoque le rire et qui se decline dans divers domaines.

Ragotin est tout d’abord designe comme le destinataire privilegie des mauvaises plaisanteries de son entourage et comme un personnage dont le vouloir demesure entre en contradiction avec un pouvoir limite. Why Is Important? Ses mesaventures, qui reprennent systematiquement le meme schema, fondent bien la dynamique narrative sur un comique de repetition mais celui-ci ne fait qu’amplifier un ridicule d’emblee mis en place. Is Ephedra Effective Fat? Essay? Ragotin figure en outre l’ecrivain rate, le plagiaire, celui qui imite les ouvrages des autres sans parvenir a cette emulation, a cette innutrition permettant de depasser les modeles et de proposer une creation originale. Russian Animal Farm? Le personnage se situe ainsi au croisement d’enjeux satiriques et esthetiques. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering Weight Fat? Essay? La question qui se pose alors est de savoir comment Scarron parvient a mener une reflexion litteraire feconde a partir d’un personnage a ce point fige et redondant. Ragotin se trouve en effet illustrer toutes les situations du comique de repetition recensees par Bergson.

Dans l’episode du livre vole, il evoque le « diable a ressort » qui se tend et se detend pour attraper l’ouvrage derobe : […] malgre Ragotin, il le mit entre les mains d’un autre que Ragotin saisit aussi vainement que le premier. Redemption Theme By Raymond Carter? Le livre ayant deja convole en troisieme main, il passa de la meme facon en cinq ou six mains differentes, auxquelles Ragotin ne put atteindre parce qu’il etait le plus petit de la compagnie. Plant And Body Fat?? Enfin, s’etant allonge cinq ou six fois inutilement, ayant dechire autant de manchettes et egratigne autant de mains, et le livre se promenant toujours dans la moyenne region de la chambre, le pauvre Ragotin, qui vit que tout le monde s’eclatait de rire a ses depens, se jeta tout furieux sur le premier auteur de sa confusion [7]. Les vains efforts du personnage, mis en valeur par la repetition de la meme scene et des memes termes, nous donnent bien a voir « une force qui s’obstine et un autre entetement qui la combat [8] ». Websites? Il en va de meme dans le chapitre 7 de la seconde partie ou, a peine sorti du coffre et remis sur ses pieds, il cherche a « s’elancer comme un serpent contre sa redoutable ennemie [9] ». Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering? Le schema actantiel permet de mettre en valeur la reprise systematique des memes parametres et le caractere echangeable des divers adversaires de Ragotin qui sont tous qualifies par le meme grandissement epique [10] pour rabaisser d’autant les pretentions heroiques du « demi-homme ». Redemption Carter? Si la colere de Ragotin change d’objet au cours du combat, elle se manifeste toujours de la meme facon : personnage aux reactions previsibles, il est bien identifie a une sorte de bouc emissaire, objet d’un rire collectif. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? Transforme en machine constamment relancee, Ragotin devient le souffre-douleur qui ne suscite aucune compassion car il a perdu toute humanite. Websites? Il n’est plus qu’un corps malmene, prisonnier de sa materialite pesante et alienante. La reification du personnage est plus manifeste encore lorsque s’impose l’image du « pantin a ficelles ». Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering Weight Fat? Essay? Ce meme chapitre 7 est rythme par les diverses vexations que subit l’avocat (le coffre, les chausses rompues, le pot de chambre) et par les interventions successives de ses opposants (la servante, l’Olive, La Rancune) qui semblent s’etre donne le mot pour l’humilier. Essay Math Is Used In The FBI? La scene repose donc sur l’enchainement de situations repetitives de plus en plus triviales qui mettent en evidence la structure circulaire du passage : Ragotin, coince d’abord dans un coffre a linge, se retrouve finalement avec un « pied de metal [11] ». Weight And Body? Ce retour au point de depart signale combien sont vains ses efforts pour echapper a son destin burlesque.

La metaphore du pied ferre fait ainsi echo au neologisme « encoffre [12] » pour reduire le personnage a un objet. Revolution Farm? Les comparaisons animalieres [13] et l’infantilisation du combattant fesse par l’Olive accentuent encore ce processus de deshumanisation. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering And Body? Ragotin, jete de bras en bras, se voit depossede de sa vengeance et totalement manipule. On How Math In The? Le narrateur manifeste lui-meme sa toute-puissance a l’egard de sa marionnette lorsqu’il feint de l’abandonner a sa situation humiliante, « foulant l’etain d’un pied superbe [14] » ou assis sur le pommeau d’une selle « comme sur un pivot [15] ». Is Ephedra In Lowering Weight And Body? On songe a la fin du roman ou la machine infernale semble s’emballer : Ragotin, pris pour un fou, est devetu et ligote. Essay Theme In Cathedral By Raymond Carter? Une digression permet alors au narrateur de figer un moment le personnage dans cette posture inconfortable, ce qu’il ne manque pas de souligner comme pour rappeler que Ragotin est bien « sa chose » : Retournons a Ragotin, le corps crotte et meurtri, la bouche seche, la tete pesante et les mains liees derriere le dos [16].

L’enumeration des complements circonstanciels, sous couvert de proposer un rappel de la situation, fait patiner le texte a l’instar de Ragotin prisonnier de ses malheurs [17]. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? Puis les disgraces s’abattent sur lui : devore par les moustiques, il est fouette par un cocher, mordu par un chien, pique par des abeilles au point de perdre figure humaine et de ressembler a « un petit ours nouveau-ne qui n’a point encore ete leche de sa mere [18] ». Essay Theme By Raymond? Le corps de Ragotin apparait malleable a merci comme une poupee de chiffon. Le troisieme procede mentionne par Bergson est egalement bien represente : les mesaventures de Ragotin obeissent souvent a l’effet « boule de neige » en impliquant son entourage immediat. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering Weight Fat?? Ainsi en est-il du chapitre 17 de la premiere partie ou Ragotin, faisant assaut de civilite, entreprend de raccompagner jusque dans les escaliers M lle de la Caverne et sa fille Angelique. Why Is Agriculture Important? Un faux pas de l’avocat entraine la chute des deux comediennes tandis qu’un valet deverse sur eux un sac d’avoine : L’hote y arriva qui pensa enrager contre son valet, le valet enrageait contre les comediennes, les comediennes enrageaient contre Ragotin qui enrageait plus que pas un de ceux qui enragerent, parce que mademoiselle de l’Etoile, qui arriva en meme temps, fut encore temoin de cette disgrace [19]. L’anadiplose, renforcee par les polyptotes, permet de reconstituer la chaine des personnages et des reactions pour mettre en lumiere le renversement comique de situation qu’annoncait le titre : « Le mauvais succes qu’eut la civilite de Ragotin [20] ». Is Ephedra In Lowering Fat? Essay? Ce dispositif mecanique est plus largement exploite dans la querelle qui oppose « le petit Ragotin et le grand Baguenodiere [21] ». Agriculture Important? L’isotopie de la grandeur et de la petitesse, declinee dans tout l’extrait, attire l’attention du lecteur sur l’amplification mecanique et irresistible de la scene. Effective In Lowering And Body Essay? La dispute qui degenere d’abord entre les deux protagonistes finit par s’etendre aux autres spectateurs et par provoquer une bataille generale : [Baguenodiere] se voulut reculer et il tomba a la renverse, lui et son siege, sur le malheureux Ragotin, qui fut renverse sur un autre, qui fut renverse sur un autre, qui fut aussi renverse sur un autre, et ainsi de meme jusqu’ou finissaient les sieges, dont une file entiere fut renversee comme des quilles. Theme In Cathedral? Le bruit des tombants, des dames foulees, de celles qui avaient peur, des enfants qui criaient, des gens qui parlaient, de ceux qui riaient, de ceux qui se plaignaient et de ceux qui battaient des mains fit une rumeur infernale. Plant Effective Weight And Body Essay? Jamais un aussi petit sujet ne causa de plus grands accidents [22]. La repetition de la proposition relative, la comparaison explicite avec le jeu de quilles puis l’accumulation des complements du nom rendent bien compte d’une situation qui s’aggrave et s’emballe pour generer un chaos grotesque.

Ragotin constitue donc a lui seul un veritable repertoire des situations comiques. Is Used? On est meme en droit de parler d’un hypercodage stylistique, le comique de repetition mettant en place une certaine dynamique narrative, voire un determinisme. Effective In Lowering Weight Fat?? Faut-il voir dans cette surdetermination du personnage un simple procede textuel, un effet de style porte a son paroxysme ? Dominique Froidefond, qui etudie l’evolution narrative du personnage, conclut par exemple a sa reification croissante et caricaturale : Devenu une pure mecanique, Ragotin n’existe plus : il fonctionne seulement au niveau textuel […] Ragotin ne peut pas mourir puisqu’il subsiste uniquement sur le mode de la chose [23] Il est indeniable que l’enchainement previsible et attendu de ses disgraces mecanise l’ecriture en creant une visibilite du code et que cet automatisme detruit tout effet-personne. In Cathedral By Raymond Carter? D’autre part, cet hypercodage ne peut que contribuer a l’entreprise parodique d’un auteur se proposant de bouleverser la conception sclerosee de la poetique romanesque. Effective Fat? Essay? Mais c’est aussi en ce qu’il est traite comme un objet semiotique, comme un signe, que Ragotin fait sens et retrouve une certaine consistance narrative.

Sa vocation a l’echec et a la derision prend evidemment une signification morale que l’on ne saurait toutefois separer des enjeux litteraires de l’oeuvre. Le comique de repetition permet en effet d’identifier le petit avocat au paradigme d’une humanite mediocre s’acharnant a repeter indefiniment des gestes et des attitudes mecaniques. Essay In Cathedral By Raymond Carter? Dans une perspective morale, Ragotin offre ainsi a Scarron l’occasion de decliner les defauts qu’il convient d’eviter : sa rigidite physique manifeste son egocentrisme, son incapacite a tenir compte des desirs d’autrui et a evoluer, son absence de distance critique et d’humour. Weight Essay? La recurrence ineluctable de ses disgraces temoigne bien de son manque de jugement et de perspicacite. Important? Il est significatif a ce propos que Scarron ne s’appesantisse pas sur les consequences de ses maladresses : bien souvent Ragotin sort de scene avant d’avoir pris conscience de sa betise ou poursuit son chemin sans tirer lecon de ses malheurs [24]. Essay? On songe alors volontiers aux fantoches de La Bruyere, a ces automates, reduits a une collection de comportements et d’anecdotes, qui ne semblent jamais vraiment affectes par le monde exterieur. Apa Referencing? Si le personnage de Scarron parait avoir un peu plus d’epaisseur psychologique que les monomaniaques du moraliste, son entetement a suivre, quoi qu’il arrive, la pente de ses desirs le conduit de la meme facon a agir par reflexe et sans reflexion.

La derniere scene du roman le montre ainsi aux prises avec un belier qui, accoutume de charger ses adversaires, frappe violemment le crane de l’avocat a deux reprises. Plant Weight And Body Fat? Essay? Le parallele etabli entre l’animal obtus reproduisant par habitude le meme comportement et le personnage burlesque rappelle au lecteur la symetrie non moins significative que menage La Bruyere entre Menalque, ferme a son entourage, et l’aveugle qu’il heurte. Soliloquy In Romeo And Juliet? Tous deux tiennent du stereotype qui eclaire la satire sociale. Ainsi, les travers de Ragotin concernent d’autres personnages du roman et Scarron ne manque pas d’etablir entre eux des correspondances explicites. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Fat?? On songe par exemple au chapitre 19 de la premiere partie. Gospel Of John Text? Faisant suite au recit romanesque des amours de Destin et de l’Etoile, il propose un contrepoint ridicule en tournant en derision les pretentions sentimentales de personnages moins prestigieux : le colerique Ragotin, le susceptible la Rappiniere, le vaniteux Roquebrune et le misanthrope la Rancune, qui partagent tous la meme initiale, portent leur vue sur les memes femmes. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? Le comique de situation est renforce par le fait que la Rancune devient le complice et le confident de chacun de ses rivaux qui viennent le voir tour a tour dans l’espoir d’acheter les faveurs de leur belle. Essay Redemption Theme Carter? La repetition du meme scenario contribue a mettre tous ces personnages en serie, a les confondre dans la meme mesquinerie, a enseigner finalement la navrante banalite de la nature humaine et de la vie, la vanite des fantasmes qui se terminent en fiasco. Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight And Body Fat?? Dans une perspective generale, la mecanisation systematique de Ragotin permettrait donc d’attirer l’attention sur tous les caracteres susceptibles de se figer, de se reproduire sans jamais se renouveler. Aussi l’avocat du Mans est-il particulierement representatif de l’ensemble des Manceaux et des provinciaux qui singent par snobisme la societe parisienne et les moeurs de la cour.

Le chapitre 17 de la seconde partie est construit sur un jeu de miroirs qui fonde la satire de la vanite et de l’etiquette sur l’imitation. Revolution Animal Farm? L’episode est en outre encadre par deux disgraces de Ragotin qui le mettent en perspective et invitent a operer un parallele. Plant Effective Fat?? Comme Ragotin que la proximite des comediens excite et qui cherche a aligner son attitude sur les heros de roman, les provinciaux profitent aussi du theatre pour essayer d’echapper a leur quotidien routinier en copiant les manieres parisiennes : Le bourgeois du Mans se rechauffa pour la comedie. Essay Is Used In The FBI? Les dames de la ville et de la province etaient ravies d’y voir tous les jours des dames de la cour, de qui elles apprirent a se bien habiller, au moins mieux qu’elles ne faisaient, au grand profit des tailleurs a qui elles donnerent a reformer quantite de vieilles robes. Is Ephedra Weight Fat? Essay? Le bal se donnait tous les soirs, ou de tres mechants danseurs danserent de tres mauvaises courantes et ou plusieurs jeunes gens de la ville danserent en bas de drap de Hollande ou d’Usseau et en souliers cires [25]. Les derivations lexicales, les repetitions de mots, l’enumeration des personnages correspondant a autant de types ou de roles esquissent une mise en abyme theatrale qui revele le ridicule de la comedie sociale : la Province se donne comme l’image contrefaite, deformee et burlesque de la cour.

Elle en est le reflet caricatural, la copie decalee. Gospel? Or cet enchassement rappelle que, dans ce « roman comique », la satire va de pair avec une reflexion litteraire. Plant In Lowering Weight And Body? Cette imbrication du discours ideologique et de l’hypercodage stylistique que constitue le comique de repetition est particulierement bien mise en lumiere dans le passage qui oppose « le petit Ragotin et le grand Baguenodiere ». L’episode est construit sur un jeu speculaire demultiplie. In Romeo And Juliet? La troupe interprete sur scene Dom Japhet d’Armenie , une comedie d’intrigue a l’espagnole que Scarron ecrit en meme temps que le Roman comique et ou il relate les mesaventures d’un personnage fantasque, vaniteux et ridiculise par son rival.

La piece, « aussi enjoue[e] que celui qui l’a fait[e] a sujet de l’etre peu [26] », entre en resonance avec les infortunes de l’avocat. Plant Weight Fat? Essay? De plus, le narrateur precise qu’elle divertit tout le monde « a la reserve du desastreux Ragotin [27] ». Russian Revolution Animal Farm? L’intertextualite invite ainsi a interroger la finalite du comique : pourquoi et de quoi rit-on ? Elle incite egalement a considerer la litterature comme un exutoire permettant de rire de soi ou de mettre ses malheurs a distance. Weight And Body? Ragotin serait a ce titre un anti-Scarron dans la mesure ou il vit sa vie au premier degre, sans distance critique, tandis que le romancier transforme ses souffrances en comedie. Le passage opere en outre un deplacement du rire de la scene a la salle, les deux protagonistes rejouissant les spectateurs en interpretant malgre eux une farce grotesque. Gospel Of John? La reprise du meme scenario donne alors lieu a un comique de repetition appuye [28]. Is Ephedra In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? En exhibant ainsi ses procedes, la scene se designe ostensiblement comme une comedie. Theme By Raymond Carter? Le mouvement de va-et-vient qu’opere la Baguenodiere en regardant tantot Ragotin et tantot le theatre confirme en outre le jeu de miroir : le spectacle est bien dans la fiction theatrale et dans la realite.

Le theatre a bien pour vocation de repeter la vie, de la mecaniser et d’en faire la caricature lorsqu’elle tend a tourner en rond. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body Fat?? Le dialogue de sourds qui s’instaure entre Ragotin et la Baguenodiere exacerbe en effet la vacuite des rapports humains dans cette societe mancelle depourvue d’interet et de consistance. Websites? Le comique de repetition fait bien apparaitre la dependance des deux protagonistes, images inversees l’un de l’autre : le « grand Baguenodiere » et le « petit Ragotin » n’existent que dans leur interaction, de meme que les bourgeois du Mans vivent dans l’ombre des courtisans. Plant Effective Fat? Essay? Le procede d’ecriture devient en quelque sorte une machine a exposer la vacuite du paraitre. Soliloquy Examples And Juliet? En meme temps, il invite le lecteur a partager le regard surplombant de l’auteur, a apprecier la difference qui separe le rire discriminant de la connivence amusee, le comique farcesque de l’humour. Le theme du double [29], que cette scene met en avant et qui renforce le comique de repetition, rend alors compte a la fois des effets cathartiques de cette distance humoristique et d’une ecriture reflexive jouant sur les variations, les ecarts et les dissonances.

Henri Bergson remarque a juste titre que « le comique exige, pour produire tout son effet, quelque chose comme une anesthesie momentanee du coeur [30] ». Effective Weight And Body Fat?? Et le comique de repetition favorise tout particulierement cette insensibilite en nous donnant l’impression d’avoir affaire a un automate. Essay Math FBI? Le mecanisme de la catharsis comique passe par une mise a distance du fantoche, un refus de compatir a ses souffrances. Is Ephedra And Body Essay? Or on of john sait qu’en psychanalyse on Effective and Body Fat? Essay associe la figure du double a un processus d’autodefense ou l’etre se separe d’une partie de lui-meme et tente d’echapper a un aspect de sa personnalite. Gospel? Le double concretise les peurs, les fantasmes, les pulsions inavouables ; il est a la fois la projection d’un desarroi intime et le support d’une liberation. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Essay? Il se trouve que Ragotin, par sa dimension burlesque et son statut paradigmatique, apparait tout designe pour representer ce dedoublement et favoriser cette catharsis. Why Is Agriculture? On a pu voir ainsi dans le petit avocat le contrepoint ridicule de Destin [31] ou le « contre-heros » du roman [32]. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering Weight Fat?? Le « demi-homme » repete en effet sur un mode decale les gestes ou les sentiments du comedien : soupirant econduit de M lle de l’Etoile, il « vol[e] a son cheval sur les ailes de son amour, une grande epee a son cote et une carabine en bandouliere [33] », mais son rodeo se termine par une chute douloureuse tandis que Destin s’empare de la monture de Ragotin pour se lancer avec panache a la poursuite des ravisseurs d’Angelique [34]. On How Is Used In The FBI? Ragotin figure aussi le double de Roquebrune dont il annonce la deconfiture dans le chapitre 20 qui s’intitule « Suite du trebuchement de Ragotin et quelque chose de semblable qui arriva a Roquebrune [35] ». Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight And Body Fat? Essay? Denude par « ce meme fou qui avait autrefois fait si grand-peur au Destin [36] », il devient ce dement aux yeux des villageois effrayes dans le chapitre 16 de la seconde partie. Russian Revolution Farm? Malleable a volonte, Ragotin est donc une machine a dupliquer, a repeter en les caricaturant jusqu’a l’invraisemblance les petits ridicules ou les cotes caches des autres personnages.

Incarnant pour ainsi dire le prototype du double, il offre par le rire une echappatoire devant la realite decevante et agressive. Is Ephedra In Lowering Fat? Essay? Il represente des lors le double haissable dont on examples cherche a s’affranchir pour pouvoir exister en toute liberte. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering And Body Essay? Son statut de bouc emissaire le voue a la vindicte publique tandis qu’en le persecutant au fil de son roman, « Scarron le paralytique […] se detache progressivement de cette ombre qui le suit, risible dans sa difformite [37] ». Soliloquy Examples And Juliet? Le comique de repetition viserait alors a marginaliser le souffre-douleur afin de pouvoir tourner en derision ses propres souffrances. Is Ephedra And Body Fat?? Ragotin figure aussi l’Autre inquietant ou refoule. Russian? Le parallele que Scarron etablit entre lui et le fou permet d’interpreter l’etrange episode ou Destin est surpris par cet etre fantastique, mi-homme, mi-diable, qui semble naitre de son imprecation et qui le terrorise [38]. In Lowering And Body? L’une des justifications de cette scene, qui trouve son prolongement dans la mesaventure de Ragotin, serait de placer le heros en quete d’identite face a « son fantome », face a ce malaise de l’homme luttant contre sa propre mort et ses propres phobies. Essay Math In The FBI? Car il entre de la mort dans la repetition des disgraces, de l’echec dans cette negation systematique du reve. Plant Effective In Lowering Essay? Le cas limite que represente ce clown burlesque nous fait cotoyer l’absurde sans toutefois quitter le domaine comique. Essay On How Math In The FBI? Dominique Froidefond note ainsi que, dans la seconde partie, Ragotin est sans cesse menace de mort. Plant In Lowering Weight And Body Essay? La succession de ses revers le confronte a une violence et a une insensibilite croissantes de la part de son entourage.

Associe a cette surenchere, le comique de repetition rappelle que le rire va toujours plus ou moins de pair avec l’agressivite et la cruaute. Mais d’autre part l’invraisemblance, la derealisation qu’il produit participe d’une jouissance de l’outrance, d’une subversion des lois du reel. In Romeo? Le comique de repetition manifesterait alors le desir d’echapper au principe de realite. Is Ephedra And Body Fat? Essay? L’entetement de Ragotin prendrait dans cette perspective une autre signification : ses gesticulations desordonnees, son temperament exuberant trahiraient le desir fou de se soustraire a la norme, a un determinisme social et litteraire. Why Is Agriculture? Par son caractere burlesque, le personnage defie en effet l’ordre etabli, la typologie romanesque et parfois meme la fatalite narrative qui le voue a l’echec. Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight And Body Fat? Essay? Ainsi, dans l’episode ou il sauve involontairement l’ingenu Destin des cajoleries de la Bouvillon, il fait figure a la fois de deus ex machina , de double du heros feminise et ridiculise tout en representant le pendant masculin de la « grosse sensuelle » dont il bouleverse les plans et qu’il assomme en entrant [39]. Essay Carter? L’automate contribue en quelque sorte a reveler l’indetermination des caracteres, le refus de toute approche fixiste.

Il met paradoxalement en lumiere « le vivant » dans « le mecanique ». Plant In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? Le retournement de situation s’accompagne ainsi d’un jeu de miroirs inverses qui temoigne d’un parti pris ludique et d’un brouillage des codes. And Juliet? On est alors renvoye a tous les « couples » du roman [40] qui suggerent l’ambivalence de la nature humaine et donnent au narrateur l’occasion de battre en breche la notion de « heros » ou de type qui releverait d’une psychologie essentialiste. Weight Essay? Les personnages de Scarron ne sont pas construits tout d’une piece et les repetitions, les rapprochements montrent bien que, places sous le signe de la diversite et de la contrariete, ils se pretent a des lectures multiples. Websites? Le topos du double, et plus particulierement le personnage de Ragotin, apparaissent des lors au coeur du jeu d’interferences generiques qui caracterise l’ecriture du Roman comique . Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering Essay? Il participe a cette tension qui fonde le pastiche et la parodie oscillant entre la reconnaissance du modele et sa demystification. Gospel Of John? Il est ainsi parti prenante du dialogisme qui, selon Bakhtine, confere au genre romanesque son energie et sa vitalite a travers les siecles. On peut donc voir dans le comique de repetition un procede de lisibilite qui rend compte, d’une facon assez synthetique, des intentions de Scarron. Effective Fat? Essay? En surdeterminant le personnage de Ragotin, l’auteur accentue la demarche burlesque du roman, le renversement parodique des topoi precieux et heroiques percus comme conventionnels et scleroses. Websites? Il met ainsi en lumiere le heurt d’ideologies contraires mais egalement leurs interactions. And Body Fat?? La mecanisation du petit avocat lui permet a la fois de denoncer les postures morales trop figees et le raidissement d’une litterature condamnee a la repetition sterile. Apa Referencing? Le rire suscite par les disgraces de Ragotin est profondement ambivalent et temoigne de cette tension entre principe realiste et aspiration idealiste, entre naivete et demystification qui caracterise la fabrique romanesque.

Car ce procede attire tout particulierement l’attention sur le travail reflexif de l’oeuvre : le roman reprend des modeles topiques, repete ostensiblement son discours carnavalesque et ironise sur ses propres conventions. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering Weight And Body? Le comique de repetition met bien en lumiere, en les exacerbant, les invraisemblances, la mecanisation d’une ecriture qui joue des reprises lexicales, des correspondances de situations pour inciter le lecteur a entrer dans le jeu de la parodie tout en goutant le plaisir de la reconnaissance. Gospel Of John Text? En cela, Ragotin ne saurait etre reduit a un automate bouffon ou a un anti-heros caricatural. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering And Body? Parce qu’il est au centre d’une esthetique faite de tensions, il invite le lecteur a explorer, derriere l’accumulation apparemment monotone de ses mesaventures, la nature contradictoire d’une oeuvre qui aspire avant tout a la liberte. Text? Et sans doute n’est-ce pas le moindre des paradoxes du Roman comique que de faire de la repetition le lieu d’un renouvellement de la forme romanesque.

[1] Charles Perrault, Parallele des Anciens et des Modernes , 1692, vol. Is Ephedra Weight And Body? III, p. Agriculture Important? 196. Plant Weight And Body Essay? [2] Jean Emelina, Le comique. Math FBI? Essai d’interpretation generale , 1991, p. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body Essay? 60. Examples And Juliet? [3] Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , 1985, p. Plant In Lowering Weight Essay? 59. Why Is Important? [4] Ibid. In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? , p. Why Is Agriculture Important? 60. In Lowering Weight And Body Fat? Essay? [5] « Il s’offrit de leur lire […] une piece de sa facon, intitulee les Faits et Gestes de Charlemagne, en vingt-quatre journees » ( ibid. Essay In The? , p. Plant Weight Fat? Essay? 59). Why Is Important? [6] Henri Bergson, Le rire , 2004, p. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight And Body? 8. Math Is Used FBI? [7] Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , op. Is Ephedra Plant Weight Essay? cit. Redemption Theme In Cathedral By Raymond Carter? , p. Is Ephedra In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? 77-78. Websites? [8] Ibid. Is Ephedra Weight Essay? , p. Gospel? 54. Is Ephedra Effective Weight And Body Fat? Essay? [9] Ibid. Examples And Juliet? , p. Is Ephedra In Lowering Weight Fat?? 230. Apa Referencing Websites? [10] Ragotin affronte tour a tour une « puissante servante » et l’Olive qui jouit « d’une force d’Hercule » ( ibid. Plant In Lowering Weight Fat?? , p. Theme In Cathedral Carter? 230-231). Weight And Body Fat?? [11] Ibid. Why Is? , p. Is Ephedra Plant Fat? Essay? 231. Essay In Cathedral Carter? [12] Ils « le trouverent tout le corps, a la reserve de la tete, enfonce dans un grand coffre de bois qui servait a serrer le linge de l’hotellerie ; et, ce qui etait du plus facheux pour le pauvre encoffre, le dessus du coffre, fort pesant et massif, etait tombe sur ses jambes et les pressait d’une maniere fort douloureuse a voir » ( ibid. Is Ephedra Fat?? , p. Russian Animal Farm? 230). Is Ephedra Plant Effective? [13] Une premiere comparaison avec un « pourceau » rappelle l’etymologie de son nom puisqu’un ragot est un jeune sanglier. Apa Referencing Websites? Puis le rapprochement du coffre avec une « chausse-trape » le transforme en bete nuisible. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Weight And Body? [14] Ibid ., p. Animal? 231. Plant And Body Essay? [15] Ibid ., p. Apa Referencing Websites? 163. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? [16] Ibid. Essay Redemption In Cathedral Carter? , p. In Lowering Weight? 298. Soliloquy In Romeo And Juliet? [17] Le meme procede est repris a la fin de ce meme chapitre : la joie d’avoir retrouve son mulet « lui fit oublier la chute de la charrette, les coups de fouet du cocher, les morsures du chien et les piqures des mouches » ( ibid. Effective Weight Fat?? , p. Websites? 301). Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight And Body Fat?? On remarquera que chacune des mises en scene de Ragotin va de pair avec un mecanisme langagier : Scarron multiplie les repetitions de termes, de structures syntaxiques comme si le texte s’enrayait. Websites? [18] Ibid. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Essay? , p. Revolution Animal? 301. Plant Weight And Body? [19] Ibid. Websites? , p. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering? 146. Agriculture? [20] Ibid. Is Ephedra Plant Weight And Body? , p. Apa Referencing? 144. Plant In Lowering Essay? [21] Ibid ., p. Is Used FBI? 301. Is Ephedra Effective And Body Fat?? Voir le chapitre 17, deuxieme partie. Websites? [22] Ibid. Plant In Lowering Weight Fat?? , p. Apa Referencing Websites? 305. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Fat? Essay? [23] Dominique Froidefond, « Le traitement de Ragotin dans Le roman comique de Scarron », 1993, p. Apa Referencing Websites? 415-433. Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight? [24] On pourra par exemple se reporter au chapitre 17 de la premiere partie ou le narrateur fait disparaitre son personnage apres sa chute dans l’escalier : « Ragotin ne les y suivit point et je n’ai pas bien su ou il alla » (Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , op. Of John? cit ., p. Is Ephedra Weight Fat? Essay? 146). In The? Apres son altercation avec la Baguenodiere qui lui vaut de tomber dans l’egout du tripot, Ragotin se montre pres a recommencer : « Il se fourra dans la presse de ceux qui sortaient, meditant quelque chose de bien glorieux pour lui et bien funeste pour la Baguenodiere » ( ibid. Is Ephedra Plant Effective Fat? Essay? , p. Essay Redemption In Cathedral Carter? 306-307). Is Ephedra Weight And Body Essay? [25] Ibid. Essay In Cathedral? , p. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering? 303. Websites? [26] Ibid. Plant Weight Fat? Essay? , p. Gospel Of John? 304. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body? On etablit volontiers un rapprochement entre la paralysie evolutive dont souffrait Scarron et son ecriture burlesque. Essay Theme In Cathedral Carter? [27] Id. Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Essay? [28] Id.

Scarron signale le procede avec insistance en recourant aux memes verbes (« retourna, recria ») et aux complements iteratifs (« pour la troisieme fois »). Soliloquy Examples And Juliet? [29] Le theme a ete tres souvent etudie et commente. Plant In Lowering Weight? On se reportera par exemple aux travaux de Jean Serroy, Roman et realite. On How Is Used FBI? Les histoires comiques au XVII e siecle , Paris, Minard, 1981 ; de Jean Rousset, Narcisse romancier , Paris, Jose Corti, 1973 ; et de Jean-Claude Lieber, « Les deux freres rivaux ou le complexe d’Esau », Dix-septieme siecle , n °146 (1985), p. Plant Effective And Body Fat?? 69-78. Apa Referencing Websites? [30] Henri Bergson, Le rire , op. Plant Fat?? cit. Russian Animal Farm? , p. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering And Body Fat?? 4. Essay Redemption By Raymond Carter? [31] Jean Serroy, « Preface », dans Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , op. Is Ephedra In Lowering Weight And Body Fat?? cit. Soliloquy? , p. Plant In Lowering Weight And Body Fat? Essay? 27. Revolution Farm? [32] Jean Rousset, Narcisse romancier , op. Is Ephedra Plant In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? cit. Gospel Of John? , p. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering Fat?? 73. Essay On How Math? [33] Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , op. Plant Effective In Lowering And Body? cit. And Juliet? , p. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? 161. Gospel Text? On remarquera que Destin porte au debut du roman un « grand fusil sur son epaule » et une tres longue epee au cote. Is Ephedra And Body? [34] Le narrateur signale ostensiblement la coincidence : « Le Destin monta sur un cheval, sur lequel Ragotin venait d’arriver du Mans (je ne sais pas au vrai si c’etait le meme qui l’avait deja jete par terre) » ( ibid. Apa Referencing? , p. Plant And Body Fat?? 188). Essay On How? [35] Ibid. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Weight Fat?? , p. Websites? 163. Is Ephedra In Lowering And Body Essay? [36] Ibid ., p. Text? 296. Effective In Lowering Weight Essay? [37] Jean Serroy, « Preface, loc. Of John? cit. Is Ephedra Plant Weight And Body? », p. Gospel Of John Text? 15. Essay? Cette fonction du double est a rattacher a la thematique des « freres ennemis » bien illustree dans le roman avec les personnages de Destin et Glaris, Verville et Saint-Far. Math Is Used FBI? [38] « Il maudissait interieurement un si mechant chemin quand il se sentit sauter en croupe quelque homme ou quelque diable qui lui passa les bras alentour du col […] Le Destin repoussa son cheval de plus belle et, regardant derriere lui, il vit son fantome qui courait a toutes jambes vers le lieu d’ou il etait venu. In Lowering Weight And Body Essay? Il a avoue depuis que l’on ne peut avoir plus de peur qu’il en eut » (Paul Scarron, Le roman comique , op. Russian Animal Farm? cit. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering? , p. Theme? 196-197). Effective In Lowering Weight And Body? [39] Ibid. Agriculture Important? , p. Is Ephedra Effective? 243. On How Math Is Used In The? Le nez « ecache » et la bosse de la Bouvillon sont a mettre en parallele avec les multiples contusions de l’avocat. Plant In Lowering Fat?? En outre, le narrateur ne manque pas de les rapprocher explicitement en qualifiant la dame de « femme ragote » ( ibid. Revolution Farm? , p. Plant In Lowering Essay? 235) et en jouant sur l’onomastique : les deux personnages, en depit de leur temperament vif, sont voues a l’impuissance. Essay Math Is Used FBI? [40] Ces couples renvoient aussi bien a la thematique des freres ennemis (Destin et Glaris, Verville et Saint-Far, Dom Sanche et Dom Juan) qu’aux personnages travestis (Victoria, Sophie, Claudia). Bergson, Henri, Le rire , Paris, Presses universitaires de France (Quadrige), 2004 [1900].

Renart ou le rire rebelle. Par Armelle Leclercq. Le voyage de Diderot en Russie. Par Inna Gorbatov. Les trois grincements de la machine (Bergson-Moliere: retour critique) Par Jean de Guardia. Repeter pour deniaiser?

Figures de la repetition et comique chez Cyrano de Bergerac.

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Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay

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These essential skills are required by employers for Essay in Cathedral by Raymond, many different types of jobs in a variety of fields, including business analytics, data architecture, data science, marketing, project management, accounting, business development, programming, law, medicine, and Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering and Body Fat? Essay, science. Math In The FBI. You can use these skills lists throughout your job search process. Firstly, you can use these skill words in your resume. In the description of Weight Fat? Essay, your work history, you might want to use some of Essay on How FBI, these key words. Secondly, you can use these in your cover letter. In the body of your letter, you can mention one or two of Is Ephedra Plant in Lowering Weight and Body Essay, these skills, and of john, give a specific example of a time when you demonstrated those skills at work.

Finally, you can use these skill words in an interview. Make sure you have at least one example for in Lowering Weight and Body, a time you demonstrated each of the of john, top 5 skills listed here. Of course, each job will require different skills and experiences, so make sure you read the job description carefully, and focus on the skills listed by the employer. Is Ephedra Effective In Lowering And Body. Having strong analytical skills means nothing if you cannot share your analysis with others. Essay Redemption Theme. You need to Plant Weight Essay, be an effective communicator who can explain the patterns you see in the data. Sometimes you will have to explain information orally, such in a meeting or presentation.

Other times, you will have to apa referencing websites, write a report. Thus, you need to have both strong written and oral communication skills. Often, analyzing requires a creative eye to Is Ephedra in Lowering Weight and Body, spot trends in the data that others wouldn’t find. Creativity is also important when it comes to problem solving. In Cathedral By Raymond Carter. Employees often must think outside of the box to come up with effective solutions to big problems. Critical thinking is necessary for having strong analytical skills. Critical thinking refers to evaluating information and Is Ephedra Plant Weight and Body Essay, then making a decision based on your findings. In Romeo And Juliet. Critical thinking is what helps an employee make decisions that help solve problems for the company.

No matter what your career field, being good at analysis means being able to in Lowering Weight and Body, examine a large volume of data and find trends in that data. You have to go beyond just reading and russian revolution animal, understanding information, to making sense of Plant Effective Fat?, it, and Redemption Theme Carter, finding patterns. Plant Effective Weight Fat? Essay. Often, an apa referencing, employee has to first collect data or information before analyzing it. After all, you must learn more about a problem before solving it. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! Therefore, an important analytical skill is Is Ephedra Plant Weight and Body Essay being able to collect data and research a topic.

Keywords are an important component of a job application because hiring managers use the words and phrases of a resume and cover letter to screen job applicants (often through recruitment management software). By including words that the employer is looking for, you are more likely to make it through to text, the next round of the hiring process. Here is Effective Weight and Body Essay a list of analytical keywords for resumes, cover letters and job applications. Analytical Analytics Analyzing Benchmarking Big data Bivariate Business analysis Business intelligence Calculating Case analysis CATWOE Causal relationships Cohort analysis Company analysis Comparative analysis Correlation Cost analysis Credit analysis Critical analysis Critical thinking. Why Is. Data analysis Data analytics Data mining Deductive reasoning Descriptive analysis Diagnosing Dissecting Enhancing productivity Evaluating Financial analysis Fourier analysis Fundamental analysis Heptalysis Identifying cost savings Improving Industry analysis Inferential Interpreting. Loglinear analysis MATLAB MOST Multiway data analysis Optimization Pacing analysis PESTLE Policy analysis Predictive analytics Predictive modeling Prescriptive analytics Price earnings ratio Price earnings to growth Principal component analysis Prioritizing Problem solving Process analysis.

Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Resolving Restructuring Return on investment (ROI) Rhetorical analysis Risk assessment SAS Scatter plots Scenario analysis SCRS Sentimental analysis Social analysis SPSS Statistical analysis Strategic planning Streamlining processes Structured data analysis SWOT Technical analysis Trouble shooting Univariate.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of Plant in Lowering Fat? Essay, all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only Essay, looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to Plant Weight and Body, check your sources. This is Essay in the, often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the Plant Effective Weight and Body Essay list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the why is agriculture giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.

Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into Plant and Body Fat? Essay, the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the on How Harvard system. Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight Fat? Essay? Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Redemption In Cathedral By Raymond? In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and Is Ephedra Plant in Lowering appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.

Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the apa referencing author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering and Body Fat? Essay, a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of soliloquy in romeo and juliet, your sentence is based on someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Agriculture? Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the Is Ephedra Plant Effective Weight Fat? Essay ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. Important? (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the Is Ephedra in Lowering Fat? Essay most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of apa referencing websites, a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book.

Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and Essay this includes the soliloquy examples in romeo and juliet year of publication. Many books are published in their second and Plant and Body Fat? Essay third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. Russian Revolution Animal? The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay, circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the apa referencing original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted.

Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for Is Ephedra and Body Essay the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.

It’s this list that allows identifying the why is agriculture work cited. Each work you cited in Is Ephedra in Lowering Weight Essay the essay is apa referencing websites, cited once, and Plant Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay listed in alphabetical order. Examples In Romeo? Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of Is Ephedra Plant in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay, relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Of John? Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the Is Ephedra Plant Effective Essay author(s) and their initials, followed by text the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher.

If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. Is Ephedra Plant Effective In Lowering Weight? after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Agriculture Important? Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage.

Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Weight Essay Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the soliloquy in romeo and juliet family name of the author and Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering and Body Essay his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and soliloquy examples and juliet the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at Is Ephedra Plant, the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and agriculture important year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Essay Is Used In The FBI? Massey, D. Effective In Lowering And Body Fat? Essay? (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. Websites? (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.

An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in Effective a book. Theme By Raymond Carter? The editors are often given on Plant in Lowering Weight and Body the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Redemption Carter Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is Plant in Lowering and Body Fat?, quite similar to chapters in apa referencing websites a book. The main difference really is that details about the Is Ephedra Plant in Lowering Weight and Body Essay volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the gospel author, the Is Ephedra Plant and Body Essay year in brackets, the russian farm title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by Is Ephedra Plant Essay the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. Gospel Of John Text? If there are different numbers to Plant in Lowering and Body, a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.

For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. In Romeo? Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Plant in Lowering Weight Fat? Essay, Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.

Pages on soliloquy the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the Is Ephedra and Body Fat? Essay quality of the site before citing from soliloquy and juliet it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for Effective in Lowering and Body your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the important year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of Plant, publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Russian Revolution Animal? The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear.

Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. Plant Effective In Lowering And Body? (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. On How Is Used? Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and in Lowering Fat? Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in why is important the way they are cited. The key difference is Plant Weight and Body Fat? Essay, that rather than the volume, the date is given. Russian Revolution Farm? The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the Effective Weight and Body author, the year of publication in important brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the in Lowering Fat? Essay page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to Essay Math, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by Is Ephedra Plant Effective Fat? new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. Apa Referencing Websites? The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight Essay word at and the name of gospel of john, your institution, the place, and Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering and Body date of the lecture. Apa Referencing Websites? For example: Burt, S. Is Ephedra Effective And Body Fat? Essay? (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an apa referencing option.

In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the Is Ephedra Weight Fat? issue of consent is important. Why Is Important? It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.

If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for Essay on How Math is Used FBI others to Is Ephedra Effective Fat? Essay, chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the apa referencing year of a document is not known.

Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by Effective Weight and Body including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the FBI reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering and Body Essay, cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the websites information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the Is Ephedra Effective Weight and Body Fat? publisher. Course materials provided to examples and juliet, you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. In Lowering And Body Essay? Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the apa referencing websites kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher.

For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is Is Ephedra Weight and Body, capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to why is, be that of the Plant Effective in Lowering Weight Essay journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and by Raymond adjectives. Plant Effective In Lowering Weight And Body Essay? This is in fact almost everything.

Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is why is important, common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . Is Ephedra Plant Effective? No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the websites original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of Plant and Body Essay, style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Russian Animal? You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own.

Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in Effective in Lowering Fat? academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to russian revolution farm, the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by Weight and Body Fat? Essay laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is gospel of john text, something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the Is Ephedra and Body Fat? Essay easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of why is agriculture, you.

By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to Plant in Lowering Weight and Body Fat?, make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and important not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the Plant Effective and Body Fat? original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for soliloquy the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. Is Ephedra Plant Fat? Essay? I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.

Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the on How Math FBI search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on Is Ephedra Plant Effective and Body Fat? with the gospel of john job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to Plant and Body Essay, be done: finding the proper reference, for of john example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Fat? Essay, have the same possibilities than you have if not more.

If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for revolution your marker to find it on Effective Weight and Body Essay a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Apa Referencing? Usually, however, this is Is Ephedra Plant Effective Fat?, just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to gospel of john text, give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is Weight Fat?, software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from in the FBI a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Essay, some of the core reading.

Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in websites style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Effective Weight and Body Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of gospel of john, metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight, break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from revolution farm electronic articles). The presence or lack of Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering and Body Fat?, references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is gospel of john text, suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.

Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. Plant And Body? The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others.

Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an gospel of john important difference between citations and Plant Fat? quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from Theme others. Fat?? Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words.

When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. Examples? This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the Plant in Lowering Fat? main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to text, 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of Effective Weight and Body Fat? Essay, personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to apa referencing, do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.

If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and Plant Weight and Body Fat? Essay cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the in romeo and juliet text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the Is Ephedra Plant Effective in Lowering Essay rest the Essay Redemption Theme in Cathedral Carter same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the Is Ephedra Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Essay risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to Theme in Cathedral Carter, put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.

I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at Is Ephedra in Lowering Fat?, least some of it, and agriculture write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the Plant in Lowering Essay reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an agriculture academic piece of writing. Plant Weight Fat?? Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in of john text your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to Is Ephedra Effective Fat? Essay, find out soliloquy examples and juliet how to reference a chapter in a book.

There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and Fat? Essay usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to websites, manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in Effective in Lowering Weight and Body Essay a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to text, a separate file.

The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of Is Ephedra Plant Weight, formatting the reference. Essay Theme By Raymond? Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.