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Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Essay Sample. Jewish Ghettos. The theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; is racism because he became a black boy for the sole purpose of survival, to make enough money, stop the hunger pains, and to eventually move to the North where he could be himself. Wright grew up in of essay the deep dirty South; the Jim Crow South of the early twentieth century. From an early age Richard Wright was aware of two races, the black and the white. Yet he never understood the relations between the two races. The fact that he didn#8217;t understand but was always trying to got him into trouble many times. When in Memphis, Wright reluctantly assumed the role society dictated for him, the role of a black boy. As an innocent child Wright sees no difference between the blacks and the whites. Despite he is aware of the existence of a difference. #8220;My grandmother who was as white as any white person, had never looked white to me.#8221;(Pg. Ghettos. 31) This statement shows his confusion about blacks and whites. As a child Wright heard of a white man beating a black boy and believed that the white man was allowed to beat the primark jobs ni, black child.
Wright did not think that whites had the jewish, right to beat blacks because of their race. Instead he assumed that the white man was the black boy#8217;s father. Honor Application. When Wright learned that this was not true, and that the boy was beaten because of his race, he was unable to reason it. Even as he got older he didn#8217;t see the color of people. Jewish. In one instance Richard and a friend are standing outside a shop when some white people pass by, Richard doesn#8217;t move to accommodate the white people because he simple didn#8217;t notice that they were white. As a child, Wright ultimately learned to fear white people. However, he still did not understand the social differences between the races. Honor Application. White people killed Richard#8217;s uncle; and his aunt and another uncle were forced to jewish ghettos flee from the national honor society application, whites. When Wright asks his mother about these incidents she tells him, #8220;You keep your mouth shut or the ghettos, white folks will get you too.#8221; As a teenager Wright learns that a white man killed his friend#8217;s brother. When he hears about this killing he seems unable to do anything other than sit and think about what has happed.
Thereafter Wright#8217;s perception of the relations between blacks and whites became more negative. The whites he encounters while working are resentful of him. They not only beat him, but also try to force him to fight other blacks. Wright sees that the whites he encounters will do anything possible to belittle black people. A prime example is when Shorty is given a quarter just to dagger humiliate himself.
Wright then begins to live his entire life in fear of doing or saying the wrong thing and therefore subjecting himself to ghettos the wrath of the whites. He realizes that even a minor mistake in action or word could lead to his death. And that would be the last thing he wanted to occur. For most of his life, Wright had dreams of leaving the South. National. As a young teenager he says, #8220;I dreamed of going north and writing books, novels. The North symbolized to jewish ghettos me all that I had not felt and seen.#8221;(Pg.186) In #8220;Black Boy#8221; Wright admits that his goal was not to go to the North, but to escape the Themes, Midsummer Dream, South. Jewish Ghettos. Wright believed that the honor, North was a safe harbor for the racial prejudices and injustices that characterized the South. Jewish. His ultimate and all consuming goal was to reach the North.
To achieve this he betrayed his moral beliefs, doing things and bloody macbeth, fell victim to powers and beliefs that he said he never would; such as the sins his grandmother talked about. For the first time in his life he stole. More importantly he allowed himself to become a #8220;good black boy#8221; by mindlessly obeying the whites and pretending to have no identity and ghettos, no intelligence of his own. There are many themes in Black Boy. All of schubert elf king, them are directly or indirectly the product of racism. Wright is hungry because his mother, a black woman, cannot find a job that pays well. Wright tries to rebel against the restraint society placed upon his race.
He feels isolated because he questions the relations between the races and because he will not submit to the demands of a racist society. Is this the jewish ghettos, perfect essay for you? Save time and language, order Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per jewish ghettos page. Top grades and primark jobs ni, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Black Boy: The Theme of Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Black Boy#8221; Throughout the jewish ghettos, autobiographical novel #8220;Black Boy#8221;, Richard Wright uses hunger to symbolize struggle in his life. He struggles dealing with a physical hunger, societal hunger, and an educational hunger. He#8230; Summary: #8220;Library Card#8221; by Richard Wright. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is based on the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up. Schubert. The setting was back in jewish ghettos time in an era where blacks were known to be#8230; Black Boy by Richard Wright. According to Richard Wright, ďAll literature is protest. You cannot name a single literary work that is Motifs and Symbols in A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay, not protest.Ē This means that literature is usually based on ghettos, a reflection on#8230; Summary: #8220;Our Barbies, Ourselves#8221; by Emily Prager. Of Essay. #8220;The Library Card#8221; is based on jewish, the real situations Richard Wright experienced while growing up.
The setting was back in time in an era where blacks were known to be#8230; Black Boy Transcendentalism. The Transcendental movement of the mid-nineteenth century encompassed the ideas of Platonism, Patheism, Puritanism, and most importantly, Romanticism. During this era, Romanticism was prominent in American literature. Primark Jobs Ni. Richard Wright created#8230; Fear in #8220;Native Son#8221; by Richard Wright. In Richard Wright#8217;s #8220;Native Son#8221;, emotions are a very important element, especially that of ghettos, fear. National Application. Blacks are afraid of whites, whites are afraid of blacks, women are afraid of men,#8230;
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American Revolution: A Bibliographical Essay by Murray N. Rothbard. Topic: American Revolution Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought , vol. Ghettos? 1, no.1 January/March 1978 published by the Cato Institute (1978-1979) and the Institute for Humane Studies (1980-1982) under the editorial direction of Leonard P. Comparative Language? Liggio. It is republished with thanks to the original copyright holders. Murray N. Rothbard (1926-1995) was an Austrian economist, economic historian, and libertarian political philosopher. Modern Historians Confront the jewish American Revolution, by Murray N. Schubert? Rothbard. The historian must be more than a chronicler, a mere lister of events. For his real task is discovering and setting forth the causal connections between events in human history, the complex chain of human purposes, choices, and consequences over time that have shaped the fate of mankind. Investigating the causes of such a portentous event as the American Revolution is more, then, than a mere listing of preceding occurrences; for the historian must weigh the causal significance of jewish, these factors, and select those of overriding importance. Constitutional Conflict Historians. What, then, were the schubert basic and overarching causes of the American Revolution?
The older view, dominant in jewish, the first two or three decades of the of essay twentieth century, laid greatest emphasis on the conflict of constitutional ideas, on the fact that the jewish ghettos American colonists saw the actions of bloody dagger macbeth, Great Britain after 1763 as interfering with their constitutional rights as Englishmen. Typical of these works were Charles H. McIlwain, The American Revolution: A Constitutional Interpretation; Randolph G. Adams, Political Ideas of the American Revolution: Britannic-American Contributions to the Problem of Imperial Organization, 17651775; and Claude H. Jewish Ghettos? Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence. While constitutional interpretations and conflicts played a role, the entire emphasis came to seem to historiansand properly soto be stodgy and unsatisfactory: for what event as wrenching and even cataclysmic as a revolution is ever launched on the basis of mere legalisms, and legalisms that were often dubious at that? The Constitutionalists, and other early writers, were closer to the mark in noting the influence of John Locke's libertarian natural rights philosophy. Locke's influence was particularly stressed in Carl L. Becker's The Declaration of primark jobs ni, Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas and at least mentioned by the other writers. Jewish Ghettos? But while the assertion of the natural rights of man could far better stir the passions than mere legal and constitutional differences, there was still a vital missing link: for national honor society examples, how many colonists indeed sat down to read the abstract philosophy of John Locke? The Progressive Historians and the Economic Dimension. The Progressive historians, dominant in jewish, the later 1920s and the 1930s, added another, and exciting dimension to the analysis of the causes of the of essay American Revolution. For they added the ghettos important economic dimensionthe struggles over schubert the British attempt to impose taxes, mercantile restrictions, and a monopoly over the importation of jewish, tea into the colonies. But the Progressive historians did more.
Inspired by the overall work on American history of Charles A. Elf King? Beard, the Progressives also posed a contrast to the constitutional or philosophic American motivations asserted by the older historians: namely, economic motivation and class interests. In short, the American leaders, in particular the jewish wealthy merchants, struggled on behalf of their economic interests, against British restrictions and tax levies. Believing in primark jobs ni, the inevitability of class conflict, and seeing only the merchants as driven by their economic interests toward rebellion, the Progressives then had to explain two things: the continuing recourse to ideas and ideology by the American leaders, and the adoption of this ideology by the mass of the public. To explain this, the Progressives fell back on the theory of propaganda popular in the 1920s and 1930s: that the ideology propounded by the leaders was mere windy rhetoric which they never believed. The propaganda, they claimed, was used to dupe the jewish masses into going along with the revolutionary agitation. The result was a curious left-right agreement between the Progressives and the minority of definition, American historians of the Imperial school. The latter maintained that the American Revolution was the result of the unwarranted propaganda of sinister agitators who succeeded in duping the jewish masses to break their beneficent ties with the British Empire.
The major works of the Imperial school are Lawrence H. Gipson, The British Empire Before the American Revolution, and George L. Beer, British Colonial Policy, 17541765. The writings of the schubert elf king Progressive historians are legion, ranging from such popular but poorly researched books as John C. Miller, Origins of the American Revolution, to ghettos, Philip G. Davidson, Propaganda and honor application examples, the American Revolution, 17631783, to the thorough and scholarly work by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 17631776. Jewish Ghettos? The last gasp of the Progressive interpretation in definition of essay, diluted form is Merrill Jensen, The Founding of ghettos, a Nation: A History of the American Revolution, 17631776. But ideas do count in human motivation. It is impossible to read the letters, or the published writings of the example leaders, as well as of the American public, and doubt the passionate sincerity with which they held their revolutionary ideas. Furthermore, the Progressives overlooked several other important points. First, while the economic interpretation is often insightful in gauging the jewish motivations for State action, particularly by small groups of bloody dagger, pullers of the levers of ghettos, State power, it is highly inadequate in explaining the motives of mass actions, especially revolutionary actions, against the Statewhether by leaders or by the public.
For a revolution is a passionate and radical, indeed a revolutionary act. It is difficult to believe that a people will wrench themselves out of their habitual lives to risk at a blow their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, from national honor application, a mere chafing at a tax or at mercantile restrictions. There must be more to it than that. And secondly, the economic interpretation overlooked the very nature of the jewish libertarian ideology that moved the revolutionaries. This ideology integrated moral, political and economic liberty. Therefore it integrated all of these revulsions against what these libertarians saw as British invasions of their rights. Neither the Constitutionalists, stressing the legal and philosophic, nor the Progressives, stressing the definition economic grievances, saw the nature of the jewish ghettos integrated whole of American revolutionary ideology. Neither did the Consensus school of historians, who became ascendant in the 1940s and 1950s. Just as the Progressives reflected the Marxian outlook of American intellectuals of the 1930s, so the Consensus school reflected the dagger neo-Conservative American celebration that typified intellectuals in ghettos, post-World War II America. The Consensus historians were anxious to see consensus rather than conflict in American history. And since both ideology and economic interests can cause conflicts, both were discarded as causal factors in the American past.
Instead, the Consensus school saw American history as guided not by doctrinaire ideas nor by economic interests but rather by in A Midsummer Essay, a flexible, pragmatic, ad hoc approach to problem-solving. Since a revolution can hardly be a flexible approach to jewish, consensus, the American Revolution had to be written off as a mere localized conservative resistance to the British government. Furthermore, by deprecating the revolutionary nature of the bloody dagger American Revolution, the Consensus school could isolate it from the indisputably radical French Revolution and other modern upheavals, and continue to denounce the latter as ideological and socially disruptive while seeming to embrace the founding heritage of America. The leading Consensus historians were Daniel J. Boorstin and Clinton Rossiter. On the American Revolution, their works include: Boorstin, The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson and ghettos, The Americans: The Colonial Experience; and Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic: the Origins of the American Tradition of Political Liberty. Also in this school, stressing in particular the alleged democracy of the American colonies, is Robert E. Brown, Middle-Class Democracy and the Revolution in Massachusetts, 16911780. Thus, by the end of the 1950s, American historians were further away than ever from appreciating the fact that the American revolution was truly revolutionary.
They did not perceive that it was largely animated by a passionately held and radical libertarian ideology that integrated the society examples moral, political, and economic reasons for rebelling against the British imperial regime. But the Consensus historians did make one important contribution. Jewish Ghettos? They restored the older idea of the American Revolution as a movement of the bloody dagger macbeth great majority of the American people. It replaced the view held by Progressives and Imperialists alike that the revolution was a minority action imposed on a reluctant public. Particularly important in jewish ghettos, developing this position was the judicious work by John Richard Alden, The American Revolution, 17751783, still the best one volume book on the revolutionary war period. On the left, the Marxian historian Herbert Aptheker also advanced this position. He chided the definition 1930s Progressives for their opposition to the revolution as a minority class movement in The American Revolution, 17631783.
In the stifling atmosphere of Consensus history, an important advance came with the publication of the first volume of the monumental two-volume work of Robert R. Jewish? Palmer, The Age of the primark jobs ni Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 17601800, Vol. I: The Challenge. Weaving together a scintillating tapestry of trans-Atlantic history, Palmer vindicated the radicalism of the American Revolution. He pointed to its decisive inspirational effect on jewish the succeeding European revolutions of the late eighteenth century, as well as to the similarity of goals and ideologies. Palmer thereby restored the older tradition of linking these revolutions on both sides of the Atlantic, as did Jacques Godechot in France and comparative language analysis example, the Atlantic Revolution of the 18th Century. Palmer also showed that, by ghettos, one important criterion, the American Revolution was more radical than the French, since proportionately far more Tories were driven out of America than aristocrats were to be exiled from France. As a European historian, however, Palmer was not read by language analysis, the hermetically specialized guild of American historians. The crucial breakout from the miasma of American historiography of the ghettos Revolution came from one man. He was able by sheer force of scholarship to overthrow the Consensus and Progressive views and to establish a new interpretation of the causes of the American Revolution. This was Harvard Professor Bernard Bailyn, who, breaking through the hermetic separation of European and American historians, found his inspiration in the great work of Caroline Robbins, The Eighteenth Century Commonwealthman. Elf King? For Bailyn realized that Professor Robbins had discovered the missing link in the transmission of radical libertarian thought after John Locke.
She had found it in jewish, a group of dedicated writers, inspired by the English Revolution of the seventeenth century, who continued to reject the centrist Whig settlement of the analysis eighteenth century. These writers carried forward the ideals of jewish, natural rights and individual liberty. Honor Society Application Examples? In the course of ghettos, editing a volume of Revolutionary pamphlets, Bailyn discovered that Americans were indeed influenced, on a massive scale, by schubert elf king, these libertarian articles and pamphlets. Jewish Ghettos? Many of these publications were reprinted widely in example, the American colonies, and jewish ghettos, clearly influenced the revolutionary leaders. The most important shaper of Themes, Motifs Midsummer, this libertarian viewpoint was Cato's Letters, a series of newspaper articles in England in jewish ghettos, the early 1720s written by John Trenchard and his young disciple Thomas Gordon. The collected Cato's Letters were republished many times in eighteenth century England and America. Trenchard and Gordon, and the other libertarian writers, transmuted John Locke's abstract and often guarded political philosophy into a trenchant, hard-hitting, and radical libertarian creed. Not only did men have natural rights of life, liberty, and society examples, property, which governments must not invade, but Cato and the other writers declared that governmentpowerwas always and ever the jewish great enemy of liberty, and stood ready to aggress against it.
Hence, power must always be diminished as far as possible. Men must watch it continually with utmost hostility and vigilance, lest it break its bonds, and destroy the rights of the individual. Themes, Motifs And Symbols In A Night's Dream Essay? Cato particularly denounced the propensity for ghettos, tyranny of the British government of the day. This message found an eager reception in the American colonies. Thus, Bernard Bailyn established the American Revolution as at one and the same time genuinely radical and revolutionary. He showed that it was motivated largely by firmly and passionately held libertarian ideology, summed up in the phrase the transforming libertarian radicalism of the American Revolution. Bailyn's findings were first presented in the General Introduction to his edition of Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 17501776, Vol. 1, 17501765. The only national, volume of pamphlets yet published in the series, it included the works of such revolutionary leaders as the Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Thomas Fitch, James Otis, Oxenbridge Thacher, Daniel Dulany, and John Dickinson.
An expanded version was published as Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Also see the companion volume by Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics, which offered an excellent explanation for the British royal governors being weak in the eighteenth century at the same time that the King was dominant at home. Jewish Ghettos? A useful summary of the Bailyn thesis is provided by Motifs Dream Essay, Bailyn's The Central Themes of the American Revolution: An Interpretation, in S. Kurtz and J. Ghettos? Hutson, eds., Essays on the American Revolution. The scintillating writings of comparative analysis, Cato have been collected in an excellently edited volume by David L. Jacobson, The English Libertation Heritage. One problem with the generally correct Bailyn thesis is its exclusive emphasis on ideology, as it affected the minds and hearts of the Americans. Historians find it easy to slip into jewish ghettos, the view that the deep ideologically motivated hostility to Britain, while genuinely felt, was merely an expression of and Symbols in A Midsummer Dream Essay, paranoia. Indeed, Bailyn himself almost fell into ghettos, this trap in dagger macbeth, his recent overly sympathetic biography of the leading Massachusetts Tory, Thomas Hutchinson. Jewish Ghettos? One of the best historians of this period, Edmund Morgan, in the New York Review of Motifs in A, Books duly noted and jewish ghettos, warned against the trap in his review of this work. An excellent corrective to this exclusive concentration on the subjective is the work of the most important political (as contrasted to ideological) historians of the pre-Revolutionary period. National Honor Examples? In the definitive history of the Stamp Act crisis of 17651766, Edmund and Helen Morgan demonstrated the majority nature of the revolutionary movement.
They attacked, as well, the ghettos actual depredations of Great Britain on American political and economic rights. Schubert Elf King? Edmund and Helen Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution. Also see the companion source book of documents, Edmund S. Morgan, ed., Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 17641766. Ghettos? Particularly important is the monumental and definitive, though densely written, two volume political history of the coming of the American Revolution by Bernhard Knollenberg, Origins of the primark jobs ni American Revolution: 17591765; and jewish, Growth of the American Revolution, 17661775. By examining British archives, Knollenberg shows that the supposed paranoia and conspiracy theories of the primark jobs ni American colonists were all too accurate. The British officials were indeed conspiring to invade the liberties of the American colonies after the salutary neglect of the pre-1763 period. We are now fortunate in having the two-volume Knollenberg work, which supplies by jewish, far the best political history of the events leading up to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. Historians had long set 1763 as the date for primark jobs ni, the beginning of conflict between Britain and the colonies. Ghettos? Knollenberg's Origins pushes the date back to 1759, toward the end of the of essay American phase of the Seven Years War between Britain and France. Jack P. Greene has shown that the Board of Trade, headed by the imperialist Lord Halifax, had tried abortively to impose British restrictions on the colonies in the late 1740s and early 1750s. The Board's attempt was finally halted by the outbreak of war with France.
See Jack P. Greene, An Uneasy Connection: An Analysis of the Preconditions of the American Revolution, in ghettos, Kurtz and Hutson, eds., Essays on the American Revolution. John Shy's Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution is primark jobs ni, a judicious discussion of British army policies and conflicts in jewish ghettos, this period, although favorable to the British position. Howard H. Peckham's Pontiac and the Indian Uprising now replaces the venerable classic by Francis Parkman, The Conspiracy of Motifs and Symbols in A Night's, Pontiac as the best account of Pontiac's notable uprising. The Western lands were highly important in the politics of this period. The best accounts of the ghettos intricate connection between government policy, land speculation, and Western conquest are still Clarence W. Alvord, Mississippi Valley in British Politics: A Study of the Trade, Land Speculation, and Experiments in Imperialism Culminating in the American Revolution and the later Thomas Perkins Abernathy, Western Lands and the American Revolution.
A pro-British view is provided by Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness: The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 17601775. The important activities of the swindler, land speculator, and Indian trader George Croghan are covered in the definitive account by macbeth, Nicholas B. Wainwright, George Croghan: Wilderness Diplomat. A lively and vivid account of Indian relations on the frontier appears in jewish ghettos, Dale Van Every, Forth to the Wilderness: the First American Frontier, 17541774. As noted above, an excellent study of American resistance to the Stamp Act is Edmund and national application examples, Helen Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis, with supporting documents in Edmund Morgan, ed., Prologue to Revolution. The Boston Massacre has now been treated fully in jewish, Hiller B. Zobel, The Boston Massacre, and the Boston Tea Party in Benjamin W. Labaree, The Boston Tea Party. Labaree emphasizes the importance of the role of the monopoly East India Company, in administering the tea tax in America, in the final development of American fears of the Night's loss of traditional liberty.
The company's tax looting in Bengal had caused a disastrous famine which was widely reported in the American press. The English beneficiaries of the exploitation of ghettos, Bengal returned to England with their loot and purchased seats in Parliament. A recent study of these Nabobs is P. J. Marshall's East India Fortunes: The British in of essay, Bengal in jewish ghettos, the Eighteenth Century. Disgracefully, there has been very little work done on two vital revolutionary organizations and institutions in the pre-Revolutionary period: the committees of correspondence, and the Sons of Liberty. National Society? The only overall study of the committees of correspondence is the old and brief work by Edward D. Collins, Committees of Correspondence of the American Revolution. The role of the ghettos Boston Committee of Correspondence has been recently studied in Richard D. Motifs Midsummer Essay? Brown, Revolutionary Politics in Massachusetts: The Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Towns, 17721774. There is no overall study of the Sons of Liberty, but there are some valuable sectional accounts. The best is Richard Walsh, Charleston's Sons of Liberty: A Study of the Artisans, 17631789. The New York Sons are studied in Roger J. Champagne, The Military Association of the Sons of Liberty, New York Historical Society Quarterly, 41 (1957); Champagne, Liberty Boys and jewish ghettos, Mechanics of New York City, 17641774, Labor History, 8 (1967); and, from a Marxian perspective, Herbert M. Morais, The Sons of Liberty in New York, in Richard B. Analysis? Morris, ed., The Era of the American Revolution.
A realistic and thorough history of the use of mobs in the American resistance is now available, however; in jewish, Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 17651776. Several excellent studies deal with various aspects of mercantilist restrictions and enforcement by Britain as causes of the American resistance. Oliver M. National Honor? Dickerson's The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution deals with the Navigation Acts. Carl Ubbelohde treats the Admiralty courts in The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution. And Joseph J. Malone covers the jewish White Pines Acts in Pine Trees and Politics: The Naval Stores and Forest Policy in bloody, Colonial New England, 16911775. On the same subject is Robert G. Albion, Forests and jewish ghettos, Sea Power: The Timber Problem of the Royal Navy, 16521862. While marred by its consistently Progressive interpretation, Arthur M. Bloody Dagger Macbeth? Schlesinger, Sr., The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 17631776 is an important, thorough and still definitive account of the merchants and the various movements and ghettos, struggles for language analysis example, nonimportation boycotts of England. Beverly W. Bond, Jr., The Quit Rent System in the American Colonies, stands as the ghettos only work on the feudal quitrents which provided a continuing source of language, irritation in the colonies.
The Role of Ideas in the Revolution. The best works on the influence of libertarian ideology on the budding American revolutionaries are the Bailyn and other works mentioned earlier. George Rudé studies the ghettos radical libertarian Wilkite movement in England in Wilkes and Liberty: A Social Study of 1763 to 1774. And Pauline Maier examines the relations between the English Wilkites and the American radical libertarians in John Wilkes and of essay, American Disillusionment with Britain, William and Mary Quarterly, 20 (1963); as does Jack P. Ghettos? Greene in Bridge to Revolution: the Wilkes Fund Controversy in South Carolina, 17691775, Journal of Southern History, 29 (1963). Thomas Hollis was an English libertarian who dedicated his life to dagger macbeth, reprinting and disseminating libertarian works throughout the world, and particularly in the American colonies, and in corresponding with like-minded people. He has been studied in jewish, Caroline Robbins, The Strenuous Whig: Thomas Hollis of of essay, Lincoln's Inn, William and Mary Quarterly, 7 (1950).
The impact of American revolutionary thought upon English radicalism has received thorough examination in Colin Bonwick's English Radicals and the American Revolution. The influence of French libertarian thought can be found in Howard Mumford Jones, American and French Culture, 17501848. Also see Jones, O Strange New World: American Culture, The Formative Years. The most recent study of the impact of French eighteenth century thought on American revolutionary developments is Henry F. May, The Enlightenment in America. Religion played an important role in the development of jewish ghettos, revolutionary and libertarian ideas.
The great radical Massachusetts minister Jonathan Mayhew has found his biographer in Charles W. Akers, Called unto Liberty: A Life of Jonathan Mayhew, 17201766. The best work on the black regiment of Congregationalist ministers in examples, New England is Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution. While scarcely definitive, Herbert M. Jewish? Morais, Deism in Eighteenth Century America has produced the schubert elf king only work on the significant role of deism. Part of religion's role in generating a revolutionary spirit resulted from the ghettos general American fear of England's placing Anglican bishops in the American colonies. Arthur L. And Symbols In A Midsummer Night's Essay? Cross has produced the classic work on this subject in The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies. It is now partially superseded by Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic Faiths, Ideas, Personalities, and Politics, 16891775. An admirable treatment of the role of the American press in revolutionary agitation is Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., Prelude to Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain, 17641776.
It happily supersedes the jewish volume by Philip G. Davidson, Propaganda and the American Revolution, 17631783, which was fatally marred by Motifs and Symbols in A Midsummer Night's, the Progressive view that all ideology is mere propaganda rhetoric. Michael G. Kammen studies the vital role of jewish ghettos, American colonial agents to London in of essay, A Rope of Sand: The Colonial Agents, British Policies, and the American Revolution. See also: Jack Sosin, Agents and jewish ghettos, Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the comparative American Revolution, 17631875. The letters of the most important of jewish, these agents, and a leading pro-American British Whig, are included in Ross J. S. Hoffman, ed., Edmund Burke, New York Agent, with his Letters to the New York Assembly and Intimate Correspondence with Charles O'Hara, 17611776. The best treatment of British politics in bloody dagger, relation to the developing American resistance is Charles R. Ritcheson, British Politics and the American Revolution. Jewish? Rudé discusses the Whig and radical opposition to British imperial designs and to honor, Tory government at home in Wilkes and Liberty, mentioned earlier. Also see Eugene C. Black, The Association: British Extraparliamentary Political Organization, 17691793; Archibald S. Foord, His Majesty's Opposition, 17141830; George H. Guttridge, English Whiggism and the American Revolution; Lucy S. Sutherland, The City of London and the Opposition to jewish ghettos, Government, 17681774: A Study in the Rise of Metropolitan Radicalism; and Maurice R. O'Connell, Irish Politics and Social Conflict in the Age of American Revolution. Several recent works examine the great English Whig, the Duke of Newcastle, and his policy of salutary neglect. But none are satisfactory. The definitive political biography of his successor, the Marquis of bloody, Rockingham, is difficult reading.
It assumes a detailed knowledge of English politics of the jewish period; it is Ross J. S. Hoffman, The Marquis: A Study of Lord Rockingham, 17301782. The most relevant discussion of Edmund Burke's views and Themes, in A Dream, activities in this period is Carl B. Cone's Burke and the Nature of Politics, Vol. I. Jewish? The Age of the American Revolution. Several works detail the Tory, or Namierite, point of view on English politics in this period, the Motifs Night's most famous being Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier, England in the Age of the ghettos American Revolution. Revolutionary Accounts of Cities and States. Boston was the heartland of the revolutionary movement, but there is no history of the schubert elf king Boston or even Massachusetts movement per se.
Robert E. Brown, Middle-Class Democracy and the Revolution in Massachusetts, 16911780 is a basic work on Massachusetts in the eighteenth century. But the author's naive consensus view of colonial democracy badly mars the book. The Boston Massacre and Tea Party have been covered in jewish, the books cited above. The premier leader of the revolutionary movement, Samuel Adams, has been ill-served by historians; no satisfactory biography has been published. John C. Miller's Sam Adams: Pioneer in Propaganda is bloody, hostile and vituperative, under the influence of the Progressive propaganda theory. Of the numerous biographies and jewish, studies of of essay, John Adams, best for ghettos, this period, though not always reliable, is Catherine Drinker Bowen, John Adams and national honor application, the American Revolution. Though mired in detail, Page Smith's John Adams, 17351826 handles Adams's political and economic thought weakly. The heroic and often neglected Dr. Ghettos? Joseph Warren is in John Cary, Joseph Warren: Physician, Politician, Patriot. William T. Baxter studies the Hancock family, as well as the life of Boston merchants of the period, in The House of Hancock, Business in Boston, 17241774.
For non-Boston merchants, see Benjamin W. Labaree, Patriots and Partisans: the Merchants of Newburyport, 17641815. Robert J. Taylor has written an important work on rural Massachusetts: Western Massachusetts in the Revolution. Also see Lee N. Dream Essay? Newcomer's The Embattled Farmers: A Massachusetts Countryside in the American Revolution. A major revolutionary leader in Western Massachusetts receives a biography in E. Francis Brown, Joseph Hawley: Colonial Radical. The outstanding work on Connecticut in this period is jewish ghettos, Oscar Zeichner, Connecticut's Years of Controversy, 17501776. A sensible work on Rhode Island politics, placing the Ward and Hopkins camps as sectional factions rather than embodiments of primark jobs ni, a class struggle, is David S. Jewish Ghettos? Lovejoy, Rhode Island Politics and the American Revolution, 17601776. On the same theme, see also Mack F. Thompson, The Ward-Hopkins Controversy and the American Revolution in Rhode Island: An Interpretation, William and Mary Quarterly, 16 (1959). The classic work on definition New Hampshire, Richard F. Upton, Revolutionary New Hampshire, has now been supplemented by Jere R. Daniel, Experiment in Republicanism: New Hampshire Politics and the American Revolution, 17411794.
Vermont was unique in that its own guerrilla rebellion against New York rule and land grants merged easily into the Revolutionary War. Frederic Van de Water, The Reluctant Republic: Vermont, 17241791 contains a lively account of the jewish Green Mountain Boys and of the Vermont rebellion. Language Analysis Example? John Pell's Ethan Allen, a biography of the Green Mountain Boys' great leader, has now been supplemented by Charles A. Jellison's Ethan Allen. Darlene Shapiro's Ethan Allen: Philosopher-Theologian to jewish, a Generation of American Revolutionaries, William and Mary Quarterly, 21 (1964), is a particularly good account of the influence of the libertarian and Deist thought of the guerrilla leader. Despite its age and its Beardian interpretation, Carl Lotus Becker, The History of Political Parties in the Province of national, New York 17601776 is still the best work on jewish the political struggles in New York in the pre-Revolutionary era. Alternative interpretations can be found in Bernard Mason, The Road to Independence: The Revolutionary Movement in New York, 17731777, and in the later chapters of Patricia Updegraff Bonomi, A Factious People: Politics and comparative, Society in Colonial New York. However, the neo-Beardian approach to New York politics, especially in the correct stress on the continuity of the major conflicting groups in ghettos, the pre- and post-Revolutionary periods, is found in dagger macbeth, the splendid work of Alfred F. Young, The Democratic Republicans of ghettos, New York: The Origins, 17631797. The tenant risings in the Hudson Valley of New York are treated in the only full-scale work on the subject: Irving Mark, Agrarian Conflicts in Colonial New York, 17111775. National Honor Examples? This should be supplemented by the accounts in the early chapter of Bonomi, A Factious People, and in Chapter III of Staughton Lynd, Anti-Federalism in Dutchess County, New York: A Study of Democracy and Class Conflict in the Revolutionary Era.
Dorothy Dillon looks at The New York Triumvirate: A Study of the ghettos Legal and Political Careers of William Livingston, John Morin Scott, William Smith, Jr. No works are devoted to New Jersey for this period. Comparative Analysis Example? Donald L. Kemmerer offers the best approach in Path to Freedom: The Struggles for Self-Government in Colonial New Jersey, 17031776. Although missing the dimension of political and constitutional ideology, the political conflict in New Jersey after 1763 is detailed in Larry R. Gerlach, Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution. The best work on Pennsylvania politics in jewish, this period is Theodore Thayer, Pennsylvania Politics and the Growth of Democracy, 17401776.
No book fully replaces Charles H. Lincoln, The Revolutionary Movement in Pennsylvania, 17601776. Carl and Jessica Bridenbaugh have written a valuable social history in Rebels and Gentlemen: Philadelphia in of essay, the Age of Franklin. Frederick B. Tolles offers an ghettos excellent account of the leading Philadelphia merchants of the period in Meeting House and Counting House: The Quaker Merchants of Colonial Philadelphia. Most of the rebel leaders of definition, Pennsylvania remain unknown and untreated by historians. An early liberal leader, John Dickinson, now has a good biography, in David L. Jacobson, John Dickinson and jewish, the Revolution in Pennsylvania, 17641776. The only radical leader to be the subject of Themes, in A Midsummer, a biography is an old one by Burton A. Konkle, George Bryan and the Constitution of Pennsylvania, 17311791. There is a good article on the vitally important Charles Thomson, John J. Zimmerman, Charles Thomson, The Sam Adams of Philadelphia; Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 45 (1958). Of the innumerable works on the opportunistic Tory Benjamin Franklin, most are adulatory and uncritical.
This includes the standard account by Carl Van Doren, Benjamin Franklin. There is jewish, some good material, nevertheless, in Themes, Motifs in A Dream, Verner W. Crane, Benjamin Franklin and a Rising People. Most objective and ghettos, illuminating on Franklin's machinations in colonial politics, is William S. Hanna, Benjamin Franklin and Pennsylvania Politics. There is nothing good on Delaware in bloody dagger, this period. Here we must still fall back on jewish ghettos the old and unsatisfactory John T. Scharf et al., History of Delaware, 16091888. For an overall account of the South in dagger macbeth, this period, John R. Alden, The South in the Revolution, 17631789 is jewish, excellent. Charles A. Barker covers Maryland's unique political and social structure in Themes, Motifs Midsummer Night's Essay, The Background of the Revolution in Maryland. Jewish? This should be supplemented with James Haw, Maryland Politics on the Eve of Revolution: The Provincial Controversy, 17701773, Maryland Historical Magazine, 65 (1970). The best and most thorough history of colonial Virginia is Richard L. Elf King? Morton, Colonial Virginia; and the latter chapters of jewish, Volume II deal with the Parsons' Cause and other Virginia grievances down to 1763. No one has made a specific study of Virginia in the pre-Revolutionary period. But Charles S. Syndors' Gentlemen Freeholders: Political Practices in Washington's Virginia, is an excellent study of Virginia's political and social structure in of essay, the colonial period.
Robert E. and B. Jewish? Katherine Brown's Virginia, 17051786: Democracy or Aristocracy? is an absurd attempt to apply the Browns' democratic model, designed for Massachusetts, to a colony where it can scarcely be relevant. Two important revisionist articles demolish the myth that Virginia's planters were exploited by society, being indebted to British merchants. They find this grievance was not of jewish ghettos, critical importance in the Virginia revolutionary movement. Bloody Dagger Macbeth? See James H. Soltow, Scottish Traders in Virginia, 17501775, Economic History Review, 21 (1959); and jewish, Emory G. National? Evans, Planter Indebtedness and the Coming of the ghettos Revolution in Virginia, William and Mary Quarterly, 19 (1962). On Patrick Henry see Robert D. Meade's Patrick Henry, Vol.
1. Though old, Moses Coit Tyler's Patrick Henry contains long excerpts from national examples, Henry's famous speeches. On that other great radical leader, Richard Henry Lee, see Oliver P. Chitwood's Richard Henry Lee, Statesman of the Revolution. As in the case of Franklin, the historiography of the jewish conservative rebel leader George Washington suffers from uncritical adulation. Among these, the definitive biography is Douglas Southall Freeman's George Washington: A Biography. While a disorganized collection of essays, Bernhard Knollenberg's George Washington: The Virginia Period, 17321775 contains valuable revisionist insights. The literature on North Carolina is sparse, old and unsatisfactory. Robert D.W. Connor, History of North Carolina, Vol. I deals with the entire colonial and revolutionary period.
Hugh T. Lefler and Albert R. Newsome, North Carolina, is a rehash. For South Carolina the venerable general history is Edward McCrady's The History of Themes, and Symbols in A Essay, South Carolina Under the jewish ghettos Royal Government, 17191776. The standard modern work is David D. Wallace, History of South Carolina, Vol. I. Richard Maxwell Brown has written an excellent history of the national society application South Carolina Regulators in The South Carolina Regulators. The advance to revolution in South Carolina has now been covered in Robert M. Weir, A Most Important Epocha: The Coming of the Revolution in South Carolina. The only thorough history of the Sons of Liberty in jewish ghettos, any area is Richard Walsh, Charleston's Sons of Liberty: A Study of the Artisans, 17631789. Unfortunately no biographer has chronicled the primark jobs ni great radical rebel leader, Christopher Gadsden. Ghettos? But Richard Walsh has collected his writings: Christopher Gadsden, Writings, 17461805. On the coming of the Revolution in Georgia, see Kenneth Coleman, The American Revolution in schubert, Georgia, 17631789.
On the royal government of Georgia in this period, William W. Abbot's The Royal Governors of jewish ghettos, Georgia, 17541775, is particularly valuable. A concise, judicious, overall summary of the military, political, social, and economic history of the American Revolution is fortunately available in John R. Alden, The American Revolution, 17751783. The most important and dramatic change in interpreting the history of the American Revolutionary War has come about very recently: the realization that the Americans won because, and insofar as, they were conducting a massive guerrilla war. They fought a people's war against the superior firepower and orthodox military strategy and tactics of the British imperial power. With modern guerrilla war coming into focus since the late 1960s, recent historians have begun to apply its lessons to the American Revolution, not only to the tactics of individual battles but also in schubert, basic strategic insights. Ghettos? For example, they realize that guerrilla war can only succeed if the great majority of the of essay populace back the ghettos guerrillas.
This was the condition during the American Revolution. The valuable military histories of the Revolution, therefore, can be grouped into two categories: those which antedated and those which have incorporated modern insights into the nature and potential of definition of essay, guerrilla warfare. Thus, the best detailed history of the jewish ghettos military conflict, devoting keen analysis to each battle, is Motifs in A Night's Dream, Christopher Ward's The War of the Revolution. Willard M. Wallace has prepared a useful and relatively brief one-volume military history: Appeal to Arms: A Military History of the American Revolution. More specifically for the standard military history of the first year of the war, see Allen French, The First Year of the ghettos American Revolution. And Arthur B. Tourtellot describes the initial battle of Lexington and Concord in William Diamond's Drum. None of these books, however, was written recently enough to incorporate modern insights on the importance of national society, guerrilla as opposed to conventional war. But an ghettos important one-volume military history does so: Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practices, 17631789. Two books edited by George Athan Billias are particularly important, both for guerrilla insights and for schubert, penetrating revisionist studies of particular generals and their strategies and tactics: George Washington's Generals and jewish, George Washington's Opponents: British Generals and Admirals in the American Revolution. Particularly important in the former volume is George A. Billias, Horatio Gates: Professional Soldier, about a general who used guerrilla strategy and tactics against Burgoyne, culminating at Saratoga. In the same volume, Don Higgenbotham's Daniel Morgan: Guerrilla Fighter, apologizes for the fact that his valuable biography of the war's greatest guerrilla tactician had been written before the advent of his own and general interest in guerrilla warfare (Higgenbotham, Daniel Morgan: Revolutionary Rifleman.) Particularly see John W. Shy, Charles Lee: the Soldier as Radical, in which Shy looks with favor at the outstanding military libertarian and guerrilla theorist, as well as strategist and general, of the schubert elf king American Revolution.
Lee, who had been drummed out of his number two post of command and court-martialled unfairly by George Washington, is jewish ghettos, favorably reassessed in a biography by John R. Definition? Alden, Charles Lee: Traitor or Patriot? Professor Shy, who of all historians has the jewish ghettos best grasp on the importance of guerrilla warfare in primark jobs ni, this period, brilliantly interprets the various phases of British strategy during the war (from police action to conventional war to counter-guerrilla attempts at pacification in the South) in his The American Revolution: The Military Conflict Considered as A Revolutionary War, in jewish, Kurtz and Hutson, Essays on language the American Revolution. John Shy, A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on jewish the Military Struggle for American Independence is a collection of Shy's essays on military history, some of which contribute to a positive reevaluation of the importance of the militia in defensive warfare. R. Arthur Bowler, Logistics and the Failure of the British Army in elf king, America, 17751783 shows that the hostility of the local populations contributed to the failure of food supplies. This hostility was compounded by British attempts to seize the food they could not purchase. For the political direction of the war, see Gerald S. Brown, American Secretary: Colonial Policy of Lord George Germain. An important volume on militia and guerrilla warfare as against the orthodox deployment of the jewish ghettos Continental army in a local area is Adrian C. Leiby, The Revolutionary War in the Hackensack Valley: The Jersey Dutch and the Neutral Ground, 17751783. On the fierce guerrilla vs. counter-guerrilla conflicts in South Carolina during the last phase of the war, see Russell F. Weigley, The Partisan War: The South Carolina Campaign of 17801782. The essay by Ira D. Gruber, Richard Lord Howe: Admiral as Peacemaker, in Billias, George Washington's Opponents indicates clearly that one of the major reasons for the British failure to crush Washington's army in the first two years of the war was the Howe brothers' treasonous opposition (as dedicated Whigs) to primark jobs ni, the British war effort against the Americans. On the British view of the jewish war, see Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 17751783; and William B. Willcox, Portrait of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of Independence on the best British general, who suffered from an comparative language analysis example inability to work well with his colleagues.
The most recent general history of the American Revolution, Page Smith, A New Age Begins: A People's History of the jewish American Revolution incorporates many detailed insights about honor society application examples guerrilla warfare from jewish ghettos, primary sources. Political History of the Revolution. On the comparative analysis political history of the American Revolution, Edmund C. Jewish Ghettos? Burnett, The Continental Congress remains a thorough and definitive history of bloody dagger, that national political institution. Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 17741781 is an excellent study of the struggles around the Articles and the attempt to carry Nationalism even further. Despite its age, Allan Nevins, The American States During and After the Revolution, 17751789 remains by far the best, indeed the jewish only satisfactory, state-by-state political history of the revolutionary period.
In an unfortunate attempt to replace Nevins, Jackson Turner Main, The Sovereign States, 17751783 is sketchy and overly schematic, while Main's Political Parties Before the Constitution is a tangled statistical web based on comparative analysis a fallacious and unenlightening division between alleged localists and jewish, cosmopolitans. Carl Lotus Becker's The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of schubert, Political Ideas is a well-written and valuable study of the Declaration. Curtis P. Jewish Ghettos? Nettels, George Washington and American Independence demonstrates Washington's early devotion to independence. Eric Foner's Tom Paine and Revolutionary America is an excellent and sympathetic study of the great sparkplug of independence as a libertarian and laissez-faire radical. None of the full-scale biographies of Paine do him justice. Best is David Freeman Hawke's Paine. For a valuable Beardian study of state politics during the Revolution see Elisha P. Douglass, Rebels and Democrats: The Struggle for Equal Political Rights and Majority Rule During the American Revolution. A thorough documentary history of the and Symbols Midsummer Dream struggle over ghettos a Massachusetts state constitution during the war is presented in Robert J. Taylor, ed., Massachusetts, Colony to Commonwealth: Documents on the Formation of its Constitution, 17751789. The older view that confiscated Tory land in definition, New York did not devolve upon the tenants of the feudal landlords is ghettos, set forth in Harry B. Yoshpe's The Disposition of Loyalist Estates in the Southern District of the State of primark jobs ni, New York. Staughton Lynd refutes this view in Anti-Federalism in Dutchess County as does Beatrice G. Reubens, Pre-Emptive Rights in the Disposition of a Confiscated Estate: Philipsburgh Manor, New York, William and Mary Quarterly, 22 (1965).
Pennsylvania, the most radically libertarian state during the war, is examined in Robert L. Brunhouse, The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 17761790. John P. Selsam deals with its radical constitution specifically in The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776. A valuable general work on Western Pennsylvania politics in the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods is Russell J. Ghettos? Ferguson, Early Western Pennsylvania Politics. Maryland is studied in Philip A. National Society Application Examples? Crowl, Maryland During and After the Revolution. In addition to the biographies of American revolutionary leaders mentioned above, one of the numerous Jefferson biographies stands out: the magisterial study by ghettos, Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, of which see here Volume I: Jefferson the Virginian.
There is examples, no wholly satisfactory biography of the jewish great George Mason, whose Virginia Declaration of Rights inspired both the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights. But Robert A. Rutland, George Mason: Reluctant Statesman provides a brief but useful account. Also see Robert A. Rutland, ed., George Mason, Papers, 17251792 and Helen Hill Miller, George Mason: Gentleman Revolutionary. The radical Pennsylvania leader, the astronomer David Rittenhouse, is studied in Brooke Hindle's David Rittenhouse. Honor Examples? And two leading New York conservative rebels receive biographies in Frank Monaghan's John Jay, and George Dangerfield's excellent Chancellor Robert R. Jewish? Livingston of New York, 17461831. Bloody? For a biography of General Nathanael Greene, see Theodore Thayer's Nathanael Greene, Strategist of the American Revolution. A moderate Pennsylvania leader receives an jewish important biography in bloody macbeth, Kenneth R. Ghettos? Roseman, Thomas Mifflin and the Politics of the bloody macbeth American Revolution. New York's great wartime governor is studied in Ernest W. Spaulding, His Excellency George Clinton (17391812): Critic of the Constitution.
On the jewish ghettos economic and and Symbols Dream Essay, financial history of the war, E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 17761790 is a superb account of the machinations of Robert Morris and the Nationalists during and ghettos, after the war, including the expropriation of national society application examples, public funds for private purposes by Morris and his associates, and the drive for a strong central government to consolidate and extend those and similar privileges. This should be supplemented by jewish ghettos, Ferguson's study of the first Nationalist drive, which, though failing, prefigured the later push for language analysis example, the Constitution: E. James Ferguson, The Nationalists of 17811783 and the Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, Journal of jewish ghettos, American History, 56 (1969). For a useful biography of Morris see Clarence L. Ver Steeg's Robert Morris; Revolutionary Financier: With an Analysis of His Earlier Career. There is no overall study of inflation during the war, but Anne Bezanson, Inflation and Controls, Pennsylvania, 17741779, Journal of Economic History Supplement, 8 (1948) is a careful statistical study. Special groups in relation to the American Revolution are treated in Charles H. Metzger, Catholics and the American Revolution: A Study in Religious Climate and in the excellent work by Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution. Jesse Lemisch's rather quixotic program for comparative analysis example, writing history from the bottom up works in a particular case where data are fortunately available. See his article, Jack Tar in the Streets: Merchant Seamen in the Politics of Revolutionary America, William and jewish, Mary Quarterly, 25 (1968). Scholars have shown increased interest in recent years in the fate of Tories during the Revolution. Among the best works are William H. Nelson, The American Tory and Paul H. Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats: A Study in British Revolutionary Policy. Also see Mary Beth Norton, The British-Americans: The Loyalist Exiles in England 17741789; Carol Berkin, Jonathan Sewall: Odyssey of An American Loyalist; and Robert M. Calhoun, The Loyalists in Revolutionary America, 17601781. The classic work on examples the foreign policy of the American revolutionaries is Samuel Flagg Bemis's The Diplomacy of the American Revolution.
A far more revisionist work, treating the origins of the American Empire and focusing on internal and external policies of European states rather than on strictly diplomatic history, is Richard W. Van Alstyne's Empire and Independence; The International History of the American Revolution. The detailed work on the negotiations of the Peace of Paris is Richard B. Morris's The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and jewish ghettos, American Independence. But Cecil B. National Honor Society? Currey, Code Number 72/ Ben Franklin: Patriot or Spy? provides a fascinating corrective. Currey not only demonstrates Franklin's participation in Robert Morris's peculations during his ministry in Paris; he also offers newly discovered evidence of Franklin's probable role as a double agent on behalf of Great Britain. Currey describes Franklin's shift to a pro-French role during the peace negotiations, as well as the well-founded distrust of jewish ghettos, Franklin by Arthur Lee, John Adams and John Jay. Meaning and Consequences of the Revolution. There is no space here to deal with the numerous works on the nature and consequences of the American Revolution, or on the vitally important topic of the relationship between the honor society application examples Revolution and the Constitution. Here we will mention Gordon S. Wood's careful and important study of the way in which libertarian ideology was conservatized during and especially after the Revolution: The Creation of the American Republic, 17761787.
Richard B. Ghettos? Morris has many judicious insights in his The American Revolution Reconsidered. He treats the American Revolution more fully as the first war of national liberation and independence from European colonialism in his The Emerging Nations and the American Revolution. Elf King? Also see Richard L. Park and jewish ghettos, Richard D. Lambert, eds., The American Revolution Abroad. Perhaps the most important controversy was on how radical and how revolutionary were the nature and consequences of the American Revolution. We have seen Robert R. Palmer's challenge to the consensus view in elf king, his monumental The Age of the jewish Democratic Revolution. J. Franklin Jameson produced the comparative analysis example classic Beardian view on the social radicalism of the jewish ghettos American Revolution in The American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement. This thesis was attacked and Themes, Motifs and Symbols in A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay, seemingly refuted during the Consensus period of jewish, American historiography, particularly by Frederick B. Tolles, The American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement: A Reevaluation, American Historical Review, 55 (19541955); and by Clarence Ver Steeg, The American Revolution Considered as an Economic Movement, Huntington Library Quarterly, 20 (1957). Comparative Language Example? But Robert A. Nisbet, in jewish ghettos, a brilliant article, has now rehabilitated the thesis of the American Revolution as having radical consequences, not in a Beardian, but in a libertarian direction. In his The Social Impact of the bloody macbeth Revolution, Nisbet shows that the Revolution had a radical libertarian impact on American society: in abolishing feudal land tenure, in establishing religious freedom, and in jewish, beginning the definition of essay process of the abolition of slavery. Thus, to ghettos, Bailyn's insight on the libertarian sources of the Revolution, Nisbet adds his conclusion on its libertarian consequences.
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Durham, North Carolina: Trinity College Press, 1922. Akers, Charles W. Called Unto Liberty: A Life of Jonathan Mayhew, 17201766. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964. Albion, Robert G. Primark Jobs Ni? Forest and Sea Power: The Timber Problem of the jewish ghettos Royal Navy, 16521862. (1926). Hampden, Connecticut: Shoe String Press, 1965. Alden, John R. The American Revolution, 17751783.
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Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970. Brown, Richard Maxwell. The South Carolina Regulators. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1963. Brown, Robert E. Middle-Class Democracy and the Revolution in jewish ghettos, Massachusetts, 16911780. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1955. Brown, Robert E. and B. Katherine. Virginia, 17051786: Democracy or Aristocracy? East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1964. Brunhouse, Robert L. The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 17761790.
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Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 17461831. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960. Daniel, Jere R. Experiment in Republicanism: New Hampshire Politics and the American Revolution, 17411794. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970. Davidson, Philip G. Propaganda and the American Revolution, 17631783.
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How to jewish, Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? Youíve come to the right place! Whether you are new to definition of essay, searching the Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, Iíve included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for jewish ghettos resumes, itís a good idea to begin by searching for the word ďresumeĒ in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is a sample result to illustrate how this works Ė we can see the word ďResumeĒ in the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line. The first line of any search result is the title of the webpage, and primark jobs ni, the url is the specific web pageís address.
Targeting the word ďresumeĒ in the title and/or url is very handy, because for many people, itís simply common sense/instinct to either title the web page containing their resume with the ghettos word ďresume,Ē and/or save their resume using the word ďresumeĒ in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A ďfalse positiveĒ result is primark jobs ni a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the ďessenceĒ of what you are actually trying to find. Jewish Ghettos? For example Ė if youíre searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in schubert, your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and job postings that mention phrases such as, ďsubmit resumes toÖĒ In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Googleís version of the Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results:
-eoe -submit -free -Ēresume serviceĒ -template -Ēresume serviceĒ -ďresume writersĒ -ďresume writingĒ Some people who decide to make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them. Here is an jewish, example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -ďresume serviceĒ (703 OR 571) What youíll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in primark jobs ni, the screenshot below Ė which are the first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and #4 mention the jewish number 571, but itís not referenced as an definition, area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of ghettos, resumes of analysis example, people who live in jewish, VA, you can add the state and state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didnít even search for any keywords/skills.
Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to primark jobs ni, search for local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesnít support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for jewish numbers within a range, otherwise known as ďnumrangeĒ search. You can perform a numrange search on primark jobs ni, any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. Jewish Ghettos? This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and adapt it to bloody macbeth, performing a zip code radius search.
For example, take your target zip code and use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to search for zip codes in jewish, a radius and sort the schubert elf king zip codes within the radius from low to high. Using a central zip code of jewish, 75201 in honor society, Dallas, TX and targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of 76155. Using Googleís numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in TX: Sample results: you can see the zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on jewish, their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area Ė this is schubert why is can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they donít publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As ďResumeĒ
Although plenty of jewish ghettos, people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word ďresume,Ē there are some people who donít. Schubert? After searching for all of the jewish results that DO contain the comparative language analysis example word ďresumeĒ in the URL or title of the web page, you need to try to eliminate them from future search results using Googleís NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that donít mention resume in the title or URL. Jewish Ghettos? For example: Donít be tempted to definition of essay, try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in jewish, which you intend. Instead of macbeth, eliminating results with the jewish word ďresumeĒ in either the URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the definition exact opposite. Click here to see the sad reality. Ghettos? Sorry Google. Next, youíll have to think about words that are commonly found on resumes, such as ďobjective,Ē ďsummary,Ē ďexperience,Ē ďemployment,Ē ďskills,Ē ďhistory,Ē ďeducation,Ē etc. Then youíll have to try and primark jobs ni, reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and jewish ghettos, such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results:
We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the person saved their work history as ďbiodata.Ē See? Some people donít use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word ďresumeĒ is primark jobs ni actually highlighted in the url of the ghettos second result Ė which technically should not happen, as we coupled Googleís NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Schubert Elf King? Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. Thatís 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume Ė it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at ghettos, least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on comparative language analysis, the Internet that do not mention the word ďresume,Ē anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word ďresumeĒ in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain.
I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from searching without targeting the word ďresume.Ē Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to sort through the sea of false positives in order to dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. Iíve provided you with a quick overview of how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on jewish, the Internet. Be aware though Ė all is comparative language analysis example not perfect in when hunting for resumes in Google land Ė if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes Ė So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of jewish ghettos, you who read this post and asked why I: didnít talk about comparative language searching for CVís didnít suggest using the tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word ďresumeĒ didnít use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didnít talk about targeting filetypes didnít talk about just searching for the word ďresumeĒ without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didnít mention Google CSEís.
Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and also hands on expertise. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. This is very impressive. Also you will be able to get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards.
Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to jewish, my efforts! I have tried the search as Ďsite:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samplesí which you have mentioned. Themes, Motifs And Symbols In A Midsummer Night's Dream? But I didnít get any result from jewish ghettos linkedin site. If I modify the analysis search keyword as Ďsite:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobsí then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to jewish ghettos, learn ways to do sourcing for dagger macbeth resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for ghettos the same? I have already subscribed on this site. Thanks a lot for your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it. After reading your article i have got an idea to primark jobs ni, do it.. i will try.
please post me the articles related to this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your helpÖ Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for ghettos all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. Themes, Motifs Midsummer Night's Essay? How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume.
Please help me out. Iím really great full about jewish this article. Iím currently new in primark jobs ni, the field of Human Resource. And Iím currently using an jewish, online subscription based resume search. But unfortunately, itís not enough to fullfill my search. Iím currently looking for a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of comparative language, great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask.
I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the ghettos following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok resultsÖ Here is society examples my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the ghettos internet search work for you using the primark jobs ni major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id firstname.lastname@example.org. Great article! Thank you for sharing this knowledge. Itís going to be very useful for my searches.
I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for a SEO expert who needs to have worked on one of the top Alexa 100 sites? Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to ghettos, type the primark jobs ni keywords for the need requirmentÖÖÖ Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in Europe with Bilingual language option. Thanks. Very informative, thatís exactly what i am looking for.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in jewish ghettos your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youíre a dwarf on comparative the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to ghettos, provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is of essay that you do provide references.
Ideally, you would do so properly. Itís not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and ghettos, appropriate system.
The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is elf king essentially based on somebody elseís work, you should attribute the ghettos, source. You do this by stating the author(s) and Essay, the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of ghettos, a sentence, or where inappropriate in schubert elf king a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is jewish ghettos based on someone elseís work.
Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the schubert elf king, effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the jewish, author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). National Honor Society! Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the jewish, name of the of essay, first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others donít. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to jewish, select the most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is schubert blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an jewish author (quotation), youíll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. Bloody Macbeth! This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Itís not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weberís work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?
The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If itís just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.
Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the jewish ghettos, one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an definition of essay author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the jewish, alphabet after the Themes, Midsummer Night's Essay, year to jewish, identify which of the and Symbols in A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay, works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end itís your responsibility that the references are correct.
At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of jewish ghettos, references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Itís this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is primark jobs ni cited once, and jewish ghettos, listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of elf king, references is not technically the jewish, same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for application examples, your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in jewish brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the definition of essay, publisher.
If there are editors, give their names instead of the ghettos, authorsí. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, itís common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by primark jobs ni using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the ghettos, editors rather than the bloody dagger, actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. Ghettos! (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of honor application examples, Contacts and jewish, Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.
Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Primark Jobs Ni! Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and jewish ghettos, Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. Definition! You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the ghettos, name of the chapter in definition of essay single speech marks (Ď and í sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise itís enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of jewish, references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ĎGlobal worldsí in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ĎPublic choice versus democracyí in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. Comparative Language Analysis Example! (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ĎEnvironmental politics: Societyís capacity for political responseí in jewish Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.
An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ĎSocial capitalí in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book.
The main difference really is national honor society examples that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the ghettos, year in brackets, the title of the article in schubert elf king single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by jewish ghettos the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is language indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. Ghettos! (1987) ĎSocial contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalenceí, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287Ė335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ĎVolunteer work and well-beingí, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115Ė31. National Application! Small, C. (1999) ĎFinding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)í, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3).
Valente, T. (1996) ĎSocial network thresholds in the diffusion of informationí, Social Networks , 18(1):69Ė89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the jewish, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. Schubert! There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. Jewish Ghettos! The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the analysis example, word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the ghettos, publisher, the words available from : followed by macbeth the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in ghettos brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurichóeine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. National Examples! Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited.
The key difference is that rather than the volume, the jewish, date is given. Themes, Motifs And Symbols In A Midsummer Night's Essay! The reference therefore includes the name and ghettos, initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the definition of essay, title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and ghettos, finally the page where the article was found. For one page itís customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is schubert elf king common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ĎBurning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by ghettos new flag that was designed in Londoní, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2Ė3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Dagger! Itís normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Ghettos! Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts.
The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and definition, initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at jewish ghettos, and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. Comparative Language Analysis Example! For example: Burt, S. (2005) ĎSurvey sampling and administrationí, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at jewish, Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Itís usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is definition not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the ghettos, name of the comparative language analysis, person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation.
For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the jewish ghettos, author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for language example, personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Jewish! Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages itís customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in elf king brackets after the name, but itís essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the ghettos, title. With all forms of personal conversation, the primark jobs ni, issue of ghettos, consent is important. Itís always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Themes, Motifs In A Night's Dream Essay! Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, itís customary to jewish, put the primark jobs ni, word ďAnonĒ instead of the authorís name. Ghettos! For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to honor application, panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the ghettos, year. Bloody! Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the jewish, word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference.
With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an dagger macbeth ordinary e-mail. For theses itís common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the jewish, information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to primark jobs ni, guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the jewish ghettos, course title in italics (capitalized), the Themes, Motifs and Symbols Night's, kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:
Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ĎShanghai Boomí, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ĎInterviews and jewish, Interviewingí, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: itís the main title that is capitalized. Primark Jobs Ni! In the case of a book, the main title is jewish ghettos that of the book. In the primark jobs ni, case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in jewish , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors donít capitalize properly when told to, and Themes, and Symbols in A, put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and jewish ghettos, withins that should not come with capital letters.
Different publishers have different house styles, and Motifs in A Midsummer Night's Dream, you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in jewish ghettos the references. Itís perfectly fine to change them in comparative analysis your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and itís advisable to follow these conventions.
Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Youíll find full references to every work mentioned in jewish ghettos this book at definition of essay, the end. Itís difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the jewish, words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Honor Society Application! Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to ghettos, the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperóin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to primark jobs ni, plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of jewish, students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and primark jobs ni, putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could.
Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by jewish ghettos laziness, canít be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the Themes, in A Midsummer, internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, tooóthat is jewish ghettos something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: donít write the essay with the books in front of you.
By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is schubert a good thingóit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youíll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, itís hard not to notice the triple X; and ghettos, there is always the search facility in bloody dagger macbeth the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.
Technology-wise, your markers are likely to ghettos, have the bloody dagger, same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, itís equally easy for your marker to find it on ghettos a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to national honor society, give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to jewish ghettos, scan essays for duplicates; and elf king, many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember.
If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or donít refer to some of the jewish, core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to primark jobs ni, read, or whether youíre likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is jewish ghettos having the analysis example, same paragraph twice in jewish the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Primark Jobs Ni! Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic oneís writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to jewish, determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the elf king, level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of jewish, sentences, or the use of specialist terms.
Typographic signs include font size, choices of macbeth, where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from jewish electronic articles). The presence or lack of analysis example, references is jewish ghettos often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by definition of essay the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Donít use the jewish, internet to society application, copy from, no matter how tempting it is.
It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Itís essential, in jewish fact, if you want to schubert, reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Ghettos! Quotations are about the bloody dagger macbeth, exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. ďWhy canít a man be more like a woman?Ē (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of ghettos, a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number.
This is done to enable the bloody, reader to jewish, check the words in the original context. In the honor examples, list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Jewish! Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by of essay indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Jewish! For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to Themes, Motifs and Symbols Midsummer Night's, copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.
If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. Jewish Ghettos! If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. Motifs In A Midsummer Dream! For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people donít ď[deserve their] greater natural capacityĒ. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the jewish, rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the and Symbols Night's Essay, original reads: ďNo one deserves his greater natural capacityĒ (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in ghettos more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.
Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style donít fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the definition of essay, risk that your readers will think that you maybe donít really know what youíre writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an ghettos essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, itís easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.
I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I canít remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on of essay the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weekís reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Itís a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need toósuch as in your thesisóyouíll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholarís Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.
They manage citations, and jewish ghettos, usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and of essay, flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. Itís thus a good idea to jewish, familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is definition menacing. Ghettos! For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you donít use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in national honor application a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itíll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the ghettos, full references with your notes can safe a great deal of examples, time, too.