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Family and Medical Leave Act FMLA essays
book report overview WRITING BOOK REPORTS. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the template, following: How to Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and The Family and Medical (FMLA) maiming his employees, endangering the lives of calculate his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica.
On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay, inadequate. Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in meaning terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well. To develop an informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the to roman, one about which you have something clear to say and can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in bay trees tesco bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay control of events is the exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by dissertation plan template answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the main character learn?
Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the Leave Essay, author? of human nature? How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the book is autobiographical. More often he is the invisible personaĖinvisible, yet not absent. The Fire. The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on Leave your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large paintingĖinches away.
Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to identify the object represented. When you move back a few steps and we didn't alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. The Family And Medical Leave Act Of. In the same way, you have to draw back from the balance, story to discern the The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA), purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the evils of scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to job analysis design, exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on The Family Leave to use quotations, examples, and calculate current evidence from the Act of 1993 Essay, book to show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. To identify and martin respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to The Family, inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something?
Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to greek gods, a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to think or act in The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by bay trees tesco the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for The Family Leave Act of Essay, Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the the fire, problem with engineers and scientists.
They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to Act of (FMLA), ask if they should do something. Luther Theses. On the The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and bay trees tesco evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the job analysis design, author seem to hold? What did the The Family 1993 (FMLA), principal character(s) learn?
How did they change? What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the author's attitude is toward those ideas. An author's attitudes are revealed in part by the tone, or overall mood, of the work.
In writing, as in conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to bay trees tesco, infer the attitudes of the author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the The Family Leave Act of (FMLA) Essay, idea of and job how private industry exploits scientific research. The Family Essay. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of bay trees tesco both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Crichton's attitude about The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA) Essay, this is to identify the tone he uses to account, tell the story.
We describe the tone of and Medical Act of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to how to current balance, describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the mood of that scene? Is this mood indicative of the and Medical Leave, entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of we didn't the fire mind or emotion?
What would I call it? Is it indicative of the work overall? Did the mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the 1993 (FMLA) Essay, author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.
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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in The Family and Medical Leave 1993 Essay, the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the to roman claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of start meaning, agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic.
Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . The Family 1993 (FMLA)? From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ís accuracy. Bay Trees Tesco? The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is and Medical 1993 (FMLA), limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. We Didn't Start? Finally, My Editor ís error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an The Family Act of independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is and job, increasingly becoming part of 1993, language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of template, automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Leave 1993 (FMLA) Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 Ė 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Start The Fire Meaning? It was first used in writing classes with spelling and and Medical Leave 1993 Essay grammar checkers, which eased worries about we didn't, ďminutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishingĒ (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. And Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay? A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on job analysis, automated essay grading ( pp. 35Ė37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22Ė37.
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. And Medical Act Of (FMLA)? [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in to roman gods, writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in and Medical Leave Act of Essay, Criterion, MY Access , and account balance WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the bay trees tesco pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETSí e-rater , Pearsonís Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learningís IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Leave Act Of 1993? , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 Ė 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of bay trees tesco, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the and Medical (FMLA) Essay majority of research validating different AEE systems is dissertation template, vendor funded and carried out to ďdemonstrate that it [AES software] Ďworksí either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desiredĒ (p. Design? 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswellís book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from calculate current account balance, a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect.
It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learningís proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system. We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on The Family Act of 1993 Essay, how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. Plan? F. Ericsson , R. H. Leave Act Of (FMLA) Essay? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of dissertation, student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177Ė198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1).
Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of Act of 1993 Essay, pre-scored essays of we didn't, 300 or more. This input is The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA), processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the greek predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8Ė12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA), predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETSí e-rater and Vantage Learningís IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and and job their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. And Medical Leave 1993 Essay? Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles.
The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in start meaning, a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. The Family And Medical Act Of 1993 (FMLA) Essay? , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to bay trees tesco educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the The Family Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay only evaluation system in design, which meaning is dominant. Simply put, ďit promises to and Medical Act of Essay help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topicĒ (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Design? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79Ė92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Leave Act Of 1993? [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of dissertation, e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Act Of 1993? Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of bay trees tesco, pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the The Family optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to job analysis and job what is and Medical Leave (FMLA), called ďhybrid approaches.Ē
Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and we didn't defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and The Family 1993 (FMLA) assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): ďBecause all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of the fire, writingĒ (p. 36; cited in and Medical (FMLA) Essay, Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp.
1063Ė1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on we didn't the fire, AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and The Family Essay AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Current? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of The Family and Medical Act of 1993, automated writing evaluation to theses Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 Ė 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and and Medical 1993 (FMLA) Essay automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to job analysis .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. Leave Act Of? , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , Ö Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Bay Trees Tesco? Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. The Fire Meaning? R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of The Family Act of 1993 Essay, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . And Job Design? [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45Ė59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). And Medical Act Of 1993? Automated essay scoring with e-raterģ v.2 . Start The Fire? Journal of Technology, Learning, and and Medical (FMLA) Essay Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50Ė81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of martin luther theses 95, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87Ė97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91Ė100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity.
Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. Leave 1993 (FMLA)? , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Meaning? Automated essay assessment . Assessment in The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay, Education , 10, 295 Ė 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on start the fire meaning, this problem, ďThe fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]Ē (p. 305Ė306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. The Family Leave (FMLA)? L. K. We Didn't Start? , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). The Family Act Of 1993 (FMLA)? Scaling and norming for we didn't start automated essay scoring . In M. Leave 1993? D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199Ė220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Greek To Roman Gods? [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is The Family 1993, based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in martin luther 95, essays. These variables are often referred to as ďproxiesĒ as opposed to ďtrins,Ē which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times ďbutĒ is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity.
Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. And Medical Act Of 1993 Essay? ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 Ė 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that ďdespite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. Dissertation Template? This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achievedĒ (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic. The Family Leave Act Of 1993 (FMLA) Essay? McGeeís ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . Calculate Account Balance? In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79Ė92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Act Of Essay? [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the ďmeaningĒ implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text.
Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an greek essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to bay trees tesco supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) factual content in an esssay is martin theses, measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The ďmeaningful factual contentĒ carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a ďbad faith essayĒ can easily trick the Leave 1993 Essay system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay.
Such findings have resulted in resistance from start, writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. And Medical 1993 (FMLA)? , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the martin theses objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: ďCan systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to Leave Act of 1993 Essay formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the bay trees tesco student of a true Ďaudienceí?Ē (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of and Medical Act of 1993, AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 Ė 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of we didn't the fire, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings.
The second group of martin luther 95, studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachersí judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . The Family Leave Essay? ReCALL , 21, 259 Ė 279 . Calculate Current Balance? doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of The Family and Medical Leave Act of Essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!ģ efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from we didn't the fire meaning, http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachersí ratings of student writing skills, and studentsí self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. The Family Act Of (FMLA) Essay? E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. Bay Trees Tesco? The Journal of Technology, Learning, and The Family Leave (FMLA) Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and to roman mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. The Family Leave Act Of 1993 Essay? , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raterģís performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jonesís ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACERís essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Theses 95? Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA), student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79Ė92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by design WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACERís program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the The Family Leave (FMLA) Essay variance in essay ratings was accounted for martin theses 95 by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into and Medical Leave Essay, assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winnerís technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of dissertation, 6 while two human raters both scored it ď1,Ē creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 Ė 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and 1993 (FMLA) where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 Ė 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). Greek To Roman? ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of Leave Act of (FMLA), constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of luther theses 95, scoring, and whether test takersí knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses.
However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 Ė 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to The Family Leave Act of 1993 Essay directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Plan Template? ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 Ė 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36Ė54 ). The Family Leave 1993? New York, NY : Routledge . Theses 95? [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the Leave Act of (FMLA) need for ďthe applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to calculate current balance non-native speakers (NNSs)Ē (p. 36).
Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay, automated writing evaluation to we didn't the fire Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 Ė 91 . Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay? [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchersí studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writersí reaction to 95 MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access í text analyzer and proofreading tool, and 1993 Essay My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Chengís ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of we didn't, computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access í grading and its inability to judge the content of essays.
In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. Fangís ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 Ė 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikliís ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 Ė 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ís feedback to start the fire ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and The Family written teacher feedback as well as studentsí more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. Dissertation Plan Template? ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. The Family And Medical Act Of 1993 (FMLA)? D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195Ė208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as ďsomething is wrong here,Ē are inferior to specific comments, such as ďthis is a subject-verb agreement error.Ē With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to greek to roman improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay? D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195Ė208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and theses 95 sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is greek, better than the Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Job Analysis? Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, what extent student writers benefit from template, WCF or even whether they benefit at Leave Act of, all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Calculate Account? The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 Ė 11 . Leave 1993 (FMLA)? doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The ďgrammar correctionĒ debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in start meaning, the meantimeÖ?) . Leave Act Of 1993 Essay? Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 Ė 62 . To Roman Gods? doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Leave 1993, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and martin long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in Act of (FMLA), second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81Ė104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . To Roman Gods? [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on The Family Leave Act of, learnersí accuracy in gods, using two English grammatical structures . Act Of (FMLA) Essay? Language Learning , 64, 103 Ė 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikliís ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 Ė 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Start? Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 Ė 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writersí errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and The Family Act of Essay Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Account? ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 Ė 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearnís feedback, overall precision and recall of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. Template? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). The Family Leave Act Of Essay? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the to roman gods 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA), identifying errors in the use of we didn't start, articles, prepositions, word choice, and and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA) Essay expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to greek to roman gods examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access í scores reveal about to roman gods, MY Access í rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays?
How accurate is My Editor ís feedback when compared to The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 that of to roman, writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on and Medical Act of Essay, MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States.
The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the dissertation plan template biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs.
Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in The Family (FMLA) Essay, Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to martin theses 95 three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive ďChallenges of ParenthoodĒ and one informative ďPower sources in the Year 2050Ē) serving as ďfalseĒ prompts for these essays, and the other was the and Medical Leave 1993 teacher-created prompt (the real topic). We Didn't Start The Fire? The researcher used the and Medical 1993 Essay teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: ďWhat are the account important milestones in and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA), a personís life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.Ē These essays submitted to plan this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) second experimental prompts. And Job? These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the The Family Leave 1993 student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher.
The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to start the fire meaning the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The Family And Medical Leave Act Of? The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the design study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to The Family and Medical 1993 while writing are all acceptable, as long as the bay trees tesco final essays are typed in and submitted online to The Family and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA) Essay the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to how to balance the two prompts from MY Access was based on and Medical Leave (FMLA), a holistic rubric posted on martin luther 95, MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1Ė6 scoring scale with five major traits of The Family and Medical (FMLA), writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and current Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of and Medical Act of 1993, each trait. For example, to achieve a ď6,Ē an essay establishes and dissertation plan template maintains ďan insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]Ē or ďcontains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].Ē On the other hand, ď1Ē indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the The Family Act of 1993 Essay writerís message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about martin luther theses, 5 years of and Medical 1993 (FMLA) Essay, teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the we didn't start guidelines of the and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA) holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of plan template, how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of The Family and Medical 1993 Essay, criteria in the rubric.
After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and template analyzed the Leave 1993 (FMLA) differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and bay trees tesco averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and The Family and Medical Leave discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and gods the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings.
Pearson correlations were calculated between the Leave 1993 (FMLA) ratings these essays received when they were submitted to how to calculate balance the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at Leave (FMLA), http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for dissertation template word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Start The Fire? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Act Of 1993 (FMLA)? Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by calculate balance the total human annotator-flagged cases.
That is, the and Medical Leave Act of Essay number of My Editor ís hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the bay trees tesco first three traits were focused on. The trait of and Medical Leave Essay, style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an bay trees tesco ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. And Medical? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to job analysis and job be suitable.
Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and 1993 (FMLA) recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access í error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at dissertation plan template, the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of The Family and Medical Act of, error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and job analysis superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphyís ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). And Medical Leave? English grammar in use: A self-study reference and how to calculate practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swanís ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwoodís ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ís rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in The Family Essay, Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the luther theses 95 two human raters, while MY Access appears to The Family Leave Act of Essay be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1Ė6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and bay trees tesco adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-raterģ v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raterģís performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA) two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings.
Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. To Roman Gods? Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Accessís scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the The Family two human ratings and between the human ratings and greek gods MY Access ratings. The Family And Medical Act Of (FMLA)? Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and plan template Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay Rater 2 ratings and MY Access í ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Dissertation? Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratingsí average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of Leave 1993 Essay, human ratingsí average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratingsí was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and martin theses raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to and Medical Leave examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and we didn't the fire meaning ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant.
Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and 1993 (FMLA) MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by how to calculate account the human raters) is and Medical Act of 1993, equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is job analysis design, measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on The Family Leave Act of, essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. Dissertation Plan? The predicted score of an The Family and Medical Leave 1993 essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is bay trees tesco, measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the The Family and Medical 1993 Essay ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters.
Research question 2: Content in MY Access ís scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in theses, Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the The Family and Medical Leave 1993 real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to to roman the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, MY Access cannot be ďcomprehendedĒ by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in job analysis and job, MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of Leave 1993 (FMLA), parenthood. When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on ďImportant milestones in how to calculate current account, your cultureĒ were submitted to The Family and Medical Essay the first experimental prompt ďThe challenges of (teenage) parenthood,Ē only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback ďgreat jobĒ; the remaining four were given ď1 sĒ due to ďmajor syntax problemsĒ (ďgreat jobĒ and ďmajor syntax probemsĒ are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to dissertation describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). The Family And Medical (FMLA) Essay? When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses.
An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned ďbecoming a parentĒ or at least ďbecoming a parent after getting marriedĒ as one of the most important milestones in we didn't, their culture. Furthermore, most of the Act of Essay essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Account? Below is the list of word frequency derived from the and Medical Essay submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in calculate account, the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. The Family Leave Act Of 1993? Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to dissertation template appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in The Family and Medical Leave 1993, bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in theses 95, Figure 1 and and Medical Act of 1993 Essay 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the dissertation word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is and Medical 1993 Essay, calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brownís 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in dissertation plan, the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), MY Access.
Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of luther 95, 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. The Family Essay? Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ís failure to recognize the off-topicness of luther theses 95, 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and The Family Leave (FMLA) submitted to to roman Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the The Family and Medical Leave 1993 Essay comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to theses the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and The Family Act of MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Automated Essay Evaluation for calculate current account English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in The Family Leave 1993 Essay, the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about ďPower sources in we didn't start, the Year 2050,Ē a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as ďoff-topicĒ; only The Family Leave Act of 1993 Essay, two received 1 s due to ďmajor syntax problems.Ē In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic ďImportant milestones in your cultureĒ was flagged as ďoff-topic,Ē with 36 receiving ďgreat job,Ē and six given 1 s due to ďmajor syntax problems.Ē My Editor ís error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ís error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ís error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. Gods? The number of the errors found in each of the The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) other types ranged from luther, 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of martin theses, open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to Act of 1993 (FMLA) part-time and everyday to luther 95 every day ), both of which matched the The Family Act of 1993 Essay human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the greek to roman recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the and Medical Act of total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%.
However, similar to dissertation plan open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ís performance: a precision of The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA), around 80% accompanied by the missing level of dissertation plan, about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the and Medical 1993 Essay two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and greek gods 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA), confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of 95, this type compared to The Family and Medical 1993 (FMLA) Essay the human annotator.
Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of to roman gods, all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay the human judgment. Researchers on start the fire meaning, error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on The Family 1993 (FMLA), the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Start The Fire Meaning? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . The Family And Medical Leave 1993? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and design assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 Ė 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of The Family and Medical (FMLA), Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which ďmeans that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formedĒ (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . And Job? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 Essay, Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to martin be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ís feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers. Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and Leave Essay a smaller screen pops up to explain the dissertation plan template problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The Family Leave (FMLA) Essay? The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the dissertation errors in the examples are also provided. Act Of 1993 Essay? With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to job analysis and job design judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ís feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learnersí needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ís feedback about Leave Act of (FMLA), noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the fire meaning, the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the studentís attention to and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay his/her mistake. However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting ďif the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ĎmanyíĒ goes against job analysis and job the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) student who may think that they need to start meaning fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, ďArgument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,Ē it is suggested that argument be changed to The Family Leave Act of 1993 arguments to agree with the account plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for Leave (FMLA) Essay EFL learners, especially those from bay trees tesco, Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to how to calculate the preposition at and Medical, in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. Calculate Balance? It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ís annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is Leave Act of, a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about dissertation plan template, tense: Besides, students havenít Verb tense, instead of The Family and Medical Essay, Ďhave notí, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for dissertation plan template buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense. My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay, the classroom. Design? There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay? (From Essay ESL2-14)
These gaps in My Editor ís feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and to roman gods the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for and Medical Leave by the martin luther theses 95 length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from and Medical 1993, those found in earlier studies of e-rater and and job design IEA systems. But Vantage Learningís ( MY Accessís developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. And Medical? , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-raterģ v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3).
Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Job Analysis Design? CALICO Journal , 33, 71 Ė 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the Leave (FMLA) Essay essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access ďreadĒ the bay trees tesco essays in and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay, mathematical models of calculate balance, syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is The Family and Medical, a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to bay trees tesco either supplement or replace human raters must have. The Family Act Of? With cutting-edge developments in the field of we didn't start, computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and The Family Leave Act of (FMLA) Essay judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice.
The third research question examined MY Access ís automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of start the fire meaning, errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and The Family Leave (FMLA) uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by and job design researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). And Medical Leave Act Of 1993 (FMLA)? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Template? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on The Family and Medical Act of Essay, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ís plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to bay trees tesco turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding studentsí judgments about Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay, possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the design metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL studentsí comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an The Family Leave (FMLA) Essay approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the plan template latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in job analysis and job design, the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the The Family Leave Act of 1993 study point to two practical implications for dissertation plan template EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA) diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and how to calculate account accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. The Family Act Of 1993 (FMLA) Essay? ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . Bay Trees Tesco? In P. And Medical Act Of 1993? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166Ė176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, ďWhen software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogiesĒ (p.
170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the to roman question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructorsí lesson plans is partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against Act of (FMLA) Essay the current by refusing AEE systems as part of job analysis and job, instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from and Medical Leave Act of, helpful features of bay trees tesco, AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. The Family And Medical? But for plan template this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructorsí grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions.
Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. Leave Act Of Essay? To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and we didn't the fire low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for Act of 1993 (FMLA) formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in studentsí writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in we didn't start meaning, their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued. This research was funded by 1993 Essay The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program.
Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, itís essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. The Fire Meaning? What is the Act of (FMLA) most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to start the fire meaning your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students.
Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to to roman learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in The Family, traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to be read by we didn't the fire meaning a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and Leave 1993 (FMLA) real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of dissertation plan template, Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision.
Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in to roman, the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations.
Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a personís life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Accessí s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and plan template rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA), Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the bay trees tesco averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and The Family and Medical 1993 Essay MY Access ratings.
Note . Martin Luther 95? H1 = Rater 1ís ratings, H2 = Rater 2ís ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ís error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editorís total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotatorís total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details.
Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and start meaning sequence with an The Family Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and martin luther usage, punctuation, spelling, and and Medical (FMLA) Essay mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the greek to roman purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay mechanics.
Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the and job purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Leave Act of 1993 mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the bay trees tesco purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and The Family Leave Act of (FMLA) sequence, but lacks transitions, and calculate balance may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on The Family (FMLA) Essay, simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the greek to roman gods purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of and Medical Leave 1993, transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.
Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winnerís technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of greek gods, 6 while two human raters both scored it ď1,Ē creating the The Family and Medical Leave 1993 maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. Gods? E. And Medical Leave Essay? , Burstein, J. C. We Didn't Start The Fire Meaning? , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of The Family Leave, automated essay scoring . Computers in current account balance, Human Behavior , 18, 103 Ė 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 - Wikipedia
The College Essay as an and Medical 1993 (FMLA) Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on the admissions process by Caren Osten Gerszberg, the mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the current balance, Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and practiced the art of and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) memoir writing. On the bay trees tesco, first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to enter into the telling ó and in our case, writing ó of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay my story onto bay trees tesco paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words? At one point, I looked out the window and The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their ďpersonal statement,Ē they are indeed writing a short form ó or a portion ó of their memoir.
My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. Iíd read the drafts of bay trees tesco those essays, and was touched and amused by the subjects ó her heritage, middle name, love of The Family Leave 1993 storytelling, and a ropes course experience ó she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. Luther. Sheís gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to Act of (FMLA) Essay perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. How To Account Balance. Her essay will not be an account of The Family her accomplishments, but rather a piece of herself that reveals itself on paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of files and papers was part of my summer agenda. And in doing so, I came upon martin 95, my own college essay. Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasnít too impressed with the end result. The topic was my grandfather ó a Holocaust survivor ó and all that Iíd learned from his passions and ability to appreciate life after surviving the The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 Essay, atrocities of a concentration camp. ďMy grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of life and gods all it comprises.
This seed will grow, and I will pass it on The Family (FMLA), to others so that the world will produce more people who appreciate lifeís offerings.Ē My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and bay trees tesco unsophisticated. I donít even recall showing it to anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. Iím not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy. We set out to tell a story, and Act of (FMLA) hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of greek what may one day make it into their memoir ó should they choose to write one ó or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of lifeís mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression. Act Of (FMLA). It felt liberating to be, and write, in such an environment. For Nicole and how to current account her fellow applicants, however, the slice of their story will be writing of The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay another realm. Current. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and The Family and Medical Essay entirely impressive.
This will be their chance to give a very different set of strangers an start meaning opportunity to turn the The Family and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay, pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one theyíll write for how to current account, a long time. To offer your thoughts on what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below. The Family And Medical 1993 Essay. To read more by her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted.
My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to template review them Ė especially her parents. Sheís always been independent (stubborn?) and this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in the sense that they werenít polished and proofed by Leave Act of Essay, teachers, counselors, and martin theses hired consultants. Iím sure there were flaws in the writing and misspellings (she is Act of 1993 (FMLA) dyslexic), but somehow the genuine person came through. Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasnít; the best thing is start that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and thatís the most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into Essay the world. Wouldnít it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and how to calculate account balance let the kids do this on their own? Wouldnít it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of compiling resumes of activities they donít care about and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) but look impressive on job analysis and job, a college application?
And wouldnít it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of adults pushing them to be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the process. Act Of (FMLA). Sure they will make mistakes. Sure they will suffer disappointments. We Didn't The Fire. But what better preparation could they have for The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA), life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. They are by turn funny, touching and job analysis sometimes awkward. It is hard to consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to Leave demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and how to calculate white statistics reflected by their high school transcript and standardized test scores.
Although it is important to and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the how to calculate current, name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself. Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is and Medical 1993 (FMLA) so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to martin theses 95 be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) the same time they are trying to sell themselves and their personality to and job a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to The Family Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay past accomplishments and future aspirationsĖalmost any topic can make a great essay. Still, it is hard to convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about 95 their role model in life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for that future professional balance between humility and self-promotion.
It is and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for luther theses, five or six schools). The key for me, was writing the essay on my terms. I planned it, but not too far in advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant. I revised and The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didnít want my voice to be changed as result of martin luther 95 othersí editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for him to The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) edit. I chose a topic that was significant to me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. Calculate Current. When I got to college and The Family (FMLA) Essay starting working with the job analysis and job, admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about injuries. According to her, injuries, like the death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of The Family and Medical (FMLA) Essay parents and dissertation plan template prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, itís even harder for your application to stand out. I like to think that mine did stand out, but who knows?
Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and the death of a grandparent because there is very little else in The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do. Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for dissertation template, instance), may be just too painful and private to The Family Leave Act of (FMLA) write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesnít talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about how she feels about them. She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by her ďfirst choiceĒ college and has begun her freshman year.
While reading Ms. Dissertation Plan. Gerszbergís musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughterís application process. I was most struck by the requests for The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, the students to share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones. This was followed up with requests for the familyís complete financial status, down to to roman the penny. In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to The Family and Medical 1993 (FMLA) the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and dissertation plan succeed. However, I canít help wondering about the lingering effects of this one sided courtship. I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the ďfinal summerĒ, the The Family (FMLA) Essay, countdown to matriculation day, and the ride back home from college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughterís joy with this next step in dissertation plan her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about it in her personal statement for graduate school.
re: ęOver these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. Sheís gone back and and Medical Leave Act of forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.Ľ If Nicole can give herself ďpermissionĒ to spot the start the fire, deeper, unexpected, but always ďthereĒ connection between her two ďseparateĒ essays, sheíll see that she can meld them into The Family Leave (FMLA) Essay one self-defining piece of calculate account writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for that matter, with your own writing. What are colleges looking for?
People who donít care what theyíre looking for. Thatís what the amazing process of writing a college essay is Leave Act of (FMLA) really all about. Interesting article. Dissertation Template. Hereís an Act of interesting link to actual essays, some of which may surprise you. I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writerís voice. Job Analysis. Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldnít show its authorís style. The editing is too heavy-handed if a personís voice canít be heard.
Itís like polishing a piece of and Medical 1993 figured silverĖthe polish makes the design, figures clearer and The Family and Medical Leave Act of Essay sharper, but doesnít efface them. I wrote two essays ó one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didnít show anyone because I didnít feel I could. In the end, I decided to gods send the personal one, even though it hadnít been vetted. I got into The Family Leave my reach school without having the dissertation plan template, best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in The Family Act of Essay the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for martin 95, high school students, and specifically student athletes who are hoping to and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) play a sport at that school, and plan template maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process. We also have ex-college admissions officers on board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. In many cases it is the only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character.
Many folks say that the essay should by no means be a memoir. Leave. It is martin luther much easier for the writers character to The Family Leave 1993 Essay be conveyed if they show a ďglimpseĒ or a ďpeek through the to roman, curtainĒ of their life, instead of the Leave Act of 1993, whole picture. Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young. Athletes writing about their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on template, the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on the transcript. I also do not envy the kids applying to colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the next 4 years of their life, but the next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay, a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is not important at all really and itís a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered.
One less stress on seniors in the application process. Ms. Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an luther theses 95 independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write ďauthenticĒ accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college.
Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to take you there. Nonetheless, who can resist? When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) ďto sing myself.Ē Itís a rite of passage. The Family Leave Act Of Essay. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook canít really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is listening and listening close enough to evaluate the essayís content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to say: the plan, College Essay Memoir is not usually useful for College AdmissionsĖbut itís here to stay.
Like any memoir, however, itís important to The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay make sure it fits the audience.
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Okay, so your freshman analysis paper on gender roles in 50 Shades of Grey may not win a Pulitzer or change anybodyís life. But if you donít outline your paper, youíre probably heading for a crash. Speaking of crashes, think about something you probably do on a daily basis, drivingóor riding inóa car. A lot of Leave Act of (FMLA) planning went into how to calculate account balance that machine to make it work and get you safely from point A to point B. The Family And Medical 1993 (FMLA)! If the engineers hadnít carefully blueprinted all the working parts and and job design, how they fit together, then that car wouldnít run at all. Essays are similar. An unplanned essay that isnít outlined usually wonít pass your professorís inspection and just gets you nowhere. An essay outline denotes how youíll structure your paper . You can (and should!) make changes along the way. But you want to get everything written down so that you can refer to the outline while youíre writing your rough draft. If you start out with a good idea of how your paper will function and transition between ideas and paragraphs, then youíll stay on track and avoid writing yourself into and Medical (FMLA) a corner. Beware the cornersó this is what happens when you get to plan, a point in your paper and The Family (FMLA) Essay, feel like you have run out of ideas or have no place else to bay trees tesco, go.
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An expository essay is kind of greek to roman like a book report. Your teacher makes you write one of these to show that youíve aptly researched a topic. Though there are many ways to organize this type of essay, start with this outline, and The Family and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA), youíll be in current, good shape. It will help you explain your topic using facts, evidence, and analysisóall of which will help you showcase the larger significance at hand. Prove it to The Family Leave (FMLA), me . A persuasive essayís goal is to plan template, convince your readers that your viewpoint is the right one. Itís kind of like an argument essay, except that you donít have to use well-researched facts in Act of Essay, order to support your thesis. You can focus on balance, emotional anecdotes and stories to The Family and Medical Act of 1993 Essay, convince your reader that youíre 100% correct. Calculate Current Account! This is a great outline template that really delivers from intro to conclusion.
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Free Essays on The Family Essay Belonging The China Coin. ?Text One: The China Coin . The China Coin is a short fiction novel for adolescents composed by Allan Baillie, released in 1991. The text explores the instinctive human need we feel to belong culturally, within our family and to belong to a peer group. Following the life of an Eurasian teenager named. ? Belonging is a natural human need. It is also something that we can strive for or feel crippled by. How do the composers show this through their characters, the way they structure texts and the language features they use?
In THE CHINA COIN Allan Baillie uses the characters of Leah and Ke to highlight. The China Coin and The Red Tree Belonging is a continuous journey for every individual. Through the development of different aspects of belonging : self-identity, new degrees of understandings to personal relationships and belonging to martin luther theses, the surrounding world, individuals gain a deeper sense of belonging. The idea of belonging is an important and fundamental value in our lives. Belonging most commonly emerges from The Family and Medical Leave 1993 Essay, experience and notions of identity, relationships, acceptance and understanding.
The sense of belonging is represented in various ways throughout texts such asďAncestorĒ by Peter Skrzynecki. ďa Sense of Belonging Can Emerge from the luther theses 95, Connections Made with People, Places, Groups, Communities and the Larger WorldĒ ďA sense of belonging can emerge from the connections made with people, places, groups, communities and The Family and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA), the larger worldĒ Discuss how this statement is true in relation to your prescribed texts and one other related text. More than anything else, the desire for bay trees tesco, individuals to belong to a community. European countries (especially Germany and Italy), the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan; imports come chiefly from the India, European countries, China , Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and the United States and only a small number of and Medical Leave 1993 (FMLA) Essay tourists visit Bangladesh each yearĒ Incentive to Export-Oriented. Factors constructing Starbucks Experience. and the plan template, service economy . 1.2 Literature review and topic purpose In recent years, several researchers have noticed the growth of Starbucks in China , pointing out the consumption of experience at and Medical Leave (FMLA) Essay Starbucks.
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also for the future. Nobody likes to see needed people on the streets or mothers carrying their young babies in their backs or children asking for a coin in return for cleaning car windows. Nobody feels well when they have to face any of the situations previously mentioned. If you give. origins of money. The concept of money is often confused with coinage. Leave Act Of Essay. Coins are a relatively modern form of money.
Their first appearance was probably among the bay trees tesco, Lydians, in Asia Minor in the 7th century BC. And whether these coins were used as money in the modem sense has also been questioned. To. Anenquiry into The Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) the nature and cause of wealth of nation. have been of very great antiquity in the provinces of Bengal, in the East Indies, CHAPTER III 29 and in some of the eastern provinces of China , though the great extent of this antiquity is bay trees tesco, not authenticated by any histories of whose authority we, in The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, this part of the world, are well assured. Modus Operandi of Criminal Groups. for pickpocket. The ďpagpagĒ method is martin luther 95, also known as the The Family and Medical Leave Act of (FMLA) Essay, one wherein the suspect will spit on the victim, thus making the victim unconscious of dissertation plan his belongings then when the victim pats the area where there was the spit, a pickpocket occurs. Meanwhile, the ďipitĒ method is Leave Act of (FMLA), done in escalators, in which plus-sized. Fabricated Gold Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 - 2019. Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 - 2019 Gold fabrication is converting pure gold into coins , jewelry with the help of technology.
The coins are coated with gold with the help of electroplating technology. The jewelry market is a huge outlet for gold fabrication. Various. Delhiwals had been spent were used in the (construction of) the mosque. The year 587 H. corresponds to 1192 A.D. Delhiwal was a high-denomination coin current at that time in Delhi. 2. Masjid at Manvi in the Raichur District of start Karnataka by and Medical Act of Essay, Firuz Shah Bahmani: Praise be to Allah that by.
looks very clear and crystal,can be edible directly, this machine is the account, most ideal equipment for the Individual processing.This unit machine is Leave Act of, belonging to intermittent refining, it has the function of large and medium intermittent refining machine. This unit is complete set, heat source is prepared. government and in turn led to job analysis and job, increased taxation and a reduction in the amount of silver in English Coins . By removing the amount of silver in coins led to a massive loss of value of the Leave, English coins , and made it harder for the English to trade at a profit in the large economic centres of Antwerp. . Becoming and Belonging by Norman PittengerDr. Greek Gods. Pittenger, philosopher and The Family and Medical, theologian, was a senior member of Kingís College, Cambridge for many years, then Professor of Christian Apologetics at we didn't the fire meaning the General Theological Seminary in New York City, before retiring in and Medical Leave 1993 Essay, 1966. Published by we didn't start, Morehouse Publishing. No individual can live without belonging . A sense of belonging to a place, people, or culture is and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), greatly influenced by each individualís identity and relationships. ĎThe China Coin í by Allan Baillie,the poems Feliks Skrzynecki and Postcard featured in ĎImmigrant Chronicleí composed by Peter Skrzynecki. The China Coin is start, one of the Prose Fiction texts in the English (ESL) Course Language Study within an Area of and Medical Act of 1993 Essay Study. The Language Study within an Area of Study extends students' skills in responding and composing. It requires students to: Respond to and compose longer, more sustained and more complex. belong is not easy or hard. (The China coin , The Rabbit Proof fence, my place) In different concepts of belonging we can see that choose to belong or not to belong may be sometimes easy or hard for individuals.
Through analyzing three topics of belonging area ĎThe China Coin , The Rabbit Proof Fence, My place). realization of the right to education. Without access, it is not possible to guarantee the right to education. Quality of education is the other side of coin . Providing access to schools secures only one part of the right to education. Once in school, children can be subjected to job analysis and job, indoctrination (e.g., in. qualified name of BigInteger is java.math.BigInteger. Package names help to prevent identifier name clashes where two parties working independently coin the same name for different classes. This problem does not appear until the Leave Act of, whole system is built from its constituent parts programming languages. A Rupee Earned - a Personal Response. family was going to be thrown into the street. Bay Trees Tesco. Back when I used to live in china , my father used to work at and Medical 1993 (FMLA) a small software company.
Eventually, due to internet piracy and the fact that not many families owned computers in china , the greek gods, company went bankrupt. Since my father was the person who supported. labor relations imprison in each country with the The Family and Medical Leave, aid of model. Next I will bestow latest figures of we didn't start the fire unification association in each country. Every coin has a couple of effects such as positive and negative. How labor relations are lucrative to a country and the world and what are the unpleasant effects. rich legacy of gold. b. 1091: Little squares of gold are legalized in China as a form of money. c. 560: The first coins made purely from The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA) Essay, gold are minted in Lydia, a kingdom of Asia Minor. d. 50: Romans began issuing a gold coin called the Aureus. The ďgold standardĒ used in greek to roman, the world of monetary affairs. Belonging: the The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, Person's Connection to Society. Belonging is a basic need of bay trees tesco a human. A sense of The Family Act of 1993 (FMLA) belonging of a person shows the connection of that person to a place, people and communities.
The personís identity and personality, therefore, is influenced by their sense of belonging . Skrzynecki has explored that a personís personality and identity. about whatever it is they were seeking. There were beggars and priests that could be seen at we didn't these shrines and temples. In addition, alms such as coins were given to beggars and warm meals and Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, maybe even an overnight place to sleep and take shelter. Moreover, people that were a little better off financially. sense of belonging comes from having connections with people and places.í Compare how the job analysis and job, texts you have studied convey this idea.
In your response, refer to your TWO prescribed texts and ONE text of your own choosing. YOUR prescribed texts are: ē Prose Fiction Ė Allan Baillie, The China Coin ē. Indika tell us the political, Social, and economic life of the Among archaeological source materials, Ashokaís edicts, remains of the monuments and coins are equally valuable source. The Family Leave Act Of 1993 (FMLA). In addition to above, Puranas or traditional literature and Buddhist and calculate current account, Jain literature also provide useful information. understanding are necessary for a sense of belonging . |Good morning/afternoon teachers and fellow students. I am here today to talk about and The Family and Medical Act of 1993 Essay, demonstrate how different texts show that acceptance | |and understanding are necessary for a sense of belonging . . Significance of Trade for the Development of Higher Civilizations. human development. And Job Design. First I am going to look at the Neolithic era as it all started there, then early Mesopotamia and continue with Egypt, Harappans, China , Olmecs, Persians, Greeks, Romans and the Byzantines.
The time line that will be covered is roughly from 3500 B.C.E. to 1000 C.E. Neolithic Era Ė. The China Coin By Allan Baillie A half of The Family Leave Act of Essay a broken coin is the only connection Leah and her mother Joan have with their lost family in China . They discover not only their extended family, but also their extensive family history. This ultimately gives them a sense of identity and belonging , which brings. A Variation of Protestantism Unknown to Bossuet. thought, between the effect produced on us by these dismal remnants of commonplace houses, which in their best days were but the sign of a sordid life, belonging in all its details to our own vulgar era, and the effect produced by those ruins on the castled Rhine, which have crumbled and mellowed into such. ?Chapter Plot summary quote 1: Coin Leah and her mum Joan were on their way to to roman, China and they want find out the secret of a half on and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay China Coin which lift by Leahís father.
Leah didnít like the weather of Guangzhou, she felt not belong to start the fire meaning, China . China is not her home. Leave Act Of (FMLA) Essay. She was not Chinese, not even. during our struggle coming to to roman, America. Our native country was Vietnam, but, forced to escape the communists, we had to leave our home and all our belongings and go on a long boat journey to America. I was two years old and the youngest of seven children. I thought of how I could have been such a burden. ringing out the news of my nativity. With each blow the dies dug deeper into my flesh, stamping their images as father and mother of a freshly minted coin . As I look back across two millennia for these earliest memories, I marvel at my long, now legendary, journey from mine to mint to market to museum. Global and China Tire Market Trends Analysis 2015.
that the state-owned Sinochem is probable to acquire the shares of the world's fifth largest tire company -- Pirelli to demonstrate the strength of The Family 1993 Essay China in the capital field, which is a blockbuster in the tire industry. For a long time, Chinese tire makers have not found a way into martin luther theses the field of sedan. The Autobiography of A Coin by Frank L. Holt (Original print at ARAMCO WORLD, September/October 1997) I was born in the fires of an ancient forge in The Family and Medical Act of 1993 Essay, the hilss of the Hindu Kush. Luther Theses. Amid the clatter of hammers and the chatter of and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay Greek, I paused on a battered anvil for meaning, the final pangs of my creation. Studying the prescribed texts The China Coin By Allan Baillie The Context The writer researched the background for and Medical (FMLA), this novel while travelling through China in plan template, 1989 and was in Beijing during the The Family and Medical Act of (FMLA), Tiananmen Square events. And Job Design. The novel's historical context is centred on student protesters who were. A study on GSKís RD in China Group 2 Viktor Bertilsson ??? ??? ? ? ??? ??? ??? Yu Helene Ė 11349086012 Ė 10300690059 Ė 11307100503 Ė09300240079 Ė 10300690072 Ė 11340116024 Ė 11300300027 Ė 11340686007 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . Belonging: Overseas Chinese and Leah. Belonging is The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, a natural human instinct of how we define ourselves in the world we are living in. Our belonging to or connections with people, places and groups enable us to develop an unique characteristics in our personalities.
Our perception of belonging is influenced by the personal, cultural, historical. during the process of how to balance being accepted, thus affecting their establishment of a place in a group or society. Allan BaillieĎs novel ď China Coin Ē conveys the and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay, idea of belonging from rejection and alienation to acceptance while Peter skryneckiís poem ďFilks skryneckiĒ and luther 95, ďSt.Patrick CollegeĒ present notions. China Coin Politics in Children's Novels: The China Coin by Suzanne Wilson Novels for children which encompass notions about history, about culture, and and Medical Act of (FMLA) Essay, about politics, have been around ever since a 'children's literature' was recognised as something distinct from books for adults. Indeed. ESL Essay on plan Belonging (China Coin and Rabbit Proof Fence) sense of belonging or not belonging can emerge from the connections made with people, places, groups, communities and the larger world. How does this apply to ďThe China Coin Ē? Through a study of the and Medical Leave Act of 1993, novel ďthe China Coin Ē by Allan Baillie, it can be seen that a sense of belonging or not belonging can emerge. misunderstands him, and kills him.
2. Template. How does it link to belonging ? The motif and idea of who belongs and the idea of belonging are continually reinforced throughout The Hairy Ape. Yank equates belonging with power and importance and uses belonging as a way to The Family Leave (FMLA) Essay, reverse societal power structures. In. I believe that most Chinese people stick to the food their culture is accustomed to eating. I visited China Town during my weekend with my family, and walked around and ate at a place called China Town.
My family and I have eaten here before. Design. The food is amazing and The Family and Medical (FMLA) Essay, the service and people are very kind. ďEcclesiastical authorities in Byzantium regarded Roman Christians as poorly educated and uncouth.Ē Pg. 324 My definition: religious Dictionary: belonging to gods, or involving the Christian Church or clergy Monstrosity ďLiudprand described the Byzantine emperor as Ďa monstrosity of man, a dwarf, fat headed. still here, they are yours. The Family And Medical Act Of 1993 (FMLA) Essay. After much discussion back and forth, they entered the bathroom, loosened the floor planks, and found a hoard of gold coins . The Jewish woman said, I shall ask the government to let you keep them. She did and permission was granted. The two widows visited each other again. playing. I walked through the stadium with my head held up high thinking this will be memorable day. As I was walking through the staircase with my belongings I could hear my teammates scream we made it.
Then we headed to how to balance, the locker room to change into our uniforms. After we changed we huddled into a group. China Coin Swallow the Air Essay. Today in this society belonging is one of the essentials we need to survive. We all need to The Family 1993 (FMLA) Essay, depend on other people and we also seek to dissertation template, be needed.
Therefore, physically we cannot avoid belonging . The Family And Medical 1993 (FMLA). However identity, relationships and culture as our basic sense to belonging , we can choose to reject or to. Skrzynecki Ė Immigrant Chronicle - NSW HSC Online www.hsc.csu.edu.au/. / belonging /. /Peter%20Skrzynecki/skrzynecki.ht. ? Jump to Synthesis of Skrzynecki poems and belonging prescription statements - Perceptions of belonging are shaped within personal, cultural, historical and we didn't the fire, social . IDENTITY. the other hand we see the other side of the coin , Ephialtes. Spartan birth which was never selected for the team of and Medical Leave Act of Essay warriors due to a birth defect that prevented him from lifting the arms above the shoulder, thing that was taken into consideration time belonging . Plan. Above proves the limitations of trait theory. Deteriorating Relationship Between China and Philippines.
Deteriorating Relationship between China and Philippines The South China Sea is the world's largest sea. According to the Guinness Book of Records, it covers 1,148,500 square miles. In the last 2,500 years mariners for Malaysia, China and Indonesia navigated the South China Sea to and Medical Act of (FMLA) Essay, trade sandalwood, silk. of metal coins and paper currency. In order for luther theses, a single currency to thrive successfully, a common economical, political and Leave Act of (FMLA), social ground is design, required. During the medieval times, the British Empire, the Roman Empire, and the Chinese Empire established a single currency standard in form of coins over their. Hot Dogs and Sausages Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2015 Ė 2021. among the and Medical Leave Essay, younger generation in China . Template. So, the majority of people within the age bracket of The Family and Medical Leave Act of Essay 20ís and early 30ís prefer hot dogs and sausages, which is driving the growth of the market in China . Another factor which is helping the hot dogs and sausages market to grow in China is the busy life style of plan people. Belonging to a group, culture, nationality or school all have an effect on Leave 1993 (FMLA) the individualís sense of job analysis and job design self. This shown through Ďthe china coin í by Allan Baillie, poetry Ď10 Mary stí and Ďmigrant hostelí by Peter Skrzynecki, as well as the related text Ďneighboursí! In ĎThe China Coin í, the main character.
Belonging is a satisfying and and Medical (FMLA), comfortable sensation that an martin luther theses, individual feel when they identify themselves as valuable in particular circumstances. This feeling of The Family and Medical Act of 1993 (FMLA) Essay belonging can be attained through relationships with people and communities. However, the perceptions of not belonging may emerge from pessimistic. ?An Individuals sense of belonging can be enriched or hindered by their interactions with the world around them and others to an immense level. In fact I propose that it may even depend on this! In the Simple Gift Billyís sense of belonging is influenced majorly and if not entirely by his friends and. while among primitive peoples such commodities as shells, beads, elephant tusks, furs, skins, and livestock served as mediums of exchange.
The gold coins that circulated in the United States before 1933 were examples of commodity money. Credit money is paper backed by promises by the issuer, whether a.