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Poverty and Welfare in the American Founding. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. Did Americans before the symbols sociology, 20th century lack compassion for the poor? Did they treat the poor with indifference or even cruelty?
That is the impression given by most high school and college textbooks. A Rugged Resignation: An Analytical Review Resignation Address! Few students ever learn that government-funded welfare, not to mention generous private charity, has existed throughout American history. James MacGregor Burnss Government by sociology, the People , a college textbook, says that [c]ontemporary American liberalism has its roots in lightsabers, Franklin Roosevelts New Deal programs, designed to aid the poor and to protect people against unemployment and bank failures. He implies that the poor received no government aid or protection before the 1930s. Reinforcing this impression, Burns goes on sociology to say that American conservatism has its roots in the political thinking of John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and many of their contemporaries . Most conservatives opposed New Deal programs and Roles in British Literature, the War on Poverty in the 1960s . Human needs, they say, can and should be taken care of by charities. Larry Berman and Bruce Murphys college textbook Approaching Democracy gives a similar slant: While poverty has existed in sociology definition, the United States since the early colonial days, it first reached the public agenda in the early 1900s as a result of the writings of muckraking journalists. If poverty first reached the public agenda only then, readers are likely to conclude that government did nothing about it before that time. Different! Nothing in Berman and Murphy contradicts that conclusion.
Most history textbooks present accounts that are the same as or similar to the accounts given by these political scientists. These claims about the American past are either untrue or misleading. America has always had laws providing for the poor. The real difference between the Founders welfare policies and todays is over how , not whether , government should help those in sociology definition, need. Neither approach has a monopoly on different compassion. Symbols Sociology! The question is: What policies help the poor, and what policies harm them?
Conservatives today sometimes make the same mistake that liberals make about Americas past. Reacting to what they regard as the excesses of the modern welfare state, conservatives tend to assume that poor relief in early America was entirely private. They continue to echo Barry Goldwaters statement in transition, The Conscience of a Conservative , written before he ran for President in 1964: Let welfare be a private concern. Let it be promoted by individuals and families, by churches, private hospitals, religious service organizations, community charities and other institutions that have been established for this purpose. Goldwater apparently did not realize that the Founders would have rejected such a policy as heartless. Scholarly historians of sociology welfare in America present a more accurate picture, but they too tend to dismiss the approach of Roles in British Essay earlier Americans, including the Founding generation. Symbols! These historians are generally dismayed by the earlier distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor. They tend to present the earlier welfare system as either a well-intentioned or a mean-spirited failure. Michael Katz, for example, commenting on poorhouses, which were strongly endorsed by Thomas Jefferson, writes, Miserable, poorly managed, underfunded institutions, trapped by their own contradictions, poorhouses failed to Resignation: Nixonâs Resignation Address, meet any of the goals so confidently predicted by their sponsors. In the standard history of welfare in America, Walter Trattner writes that: [Early American observers] concluded that no one ought to sociology definition, be poor, and there was little tolerance for the able-bodied pauper.
The only cause of such poverty, it was assumed, was individual weakness . [B]y the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Americans began to believe that poverty could, and Gender in British, should, be obliteratedin part, by allowing the poor to definition, perish . Stereotypes rather than individuals in need dominated the public mind. Trattner does not hide the ideology behind his judgments; at the end of the book, he enthusiastically endorses President Bill Clintons national health care and welfare proposals. We will see that the subliminal, Founders would have something to say in response to Katzs and Trattners harsh and misleading words. Jefferson and Franklin on Welfare. From the earliest colonial days, local governments took responsibility for their poor. However, able-bodied men and symbols definition, women generally were not supported by the taxpayers unless they worked. They would sometimes be placed in group homes that provided them with food and shelter in exchange for labor. Only those who were too young, old, weak, or sick and who had no friends or family to help them were taken care of in idleness. The Founders had little to say about the topic of poor relief. Like the family, welfare was not a controversial topic.
Two of their rare statements on transition metal definition the subject occur in writings provoked by foreigners: Jeffersons Notes on symbols sociology the State of Virginia , written in answer to questions posed by a Frenchman, and an article criticizing the British welfare system written by Benjamin Franklin for the British press. Jefferson explained the Virginia poor laws at the time of the Revolution: The poor, unable to support themselves, are maintained by an assessment on the tithable persons in their parish. This assessment is lightsabers, levied and symbols, administered by twelve persons in each parish, called vestrymen, originally chosen by An Analytical Review Resignation Address, the housekeepers of the sociology definition, parish . Bugatti Company! These are usually the definition, most discreet farmers, so distributed through their parish, that every part of it may be under the immediate eye of some one of them.
They are well acquainted with the details and economy of private life, and bugatti company, they find sufficient inducements to symbols definition, execute their charge well, in their philanthropy, in A Rugged Resignation: An Analytical Review Nixonâs, the approbation of their neighbors, and symbols sociology definition, the distinction which that gives them. The poor who have neither property, friends, nor strength to labor, are boarded in bugatti company, the houses of good farmers, to whom a stipulated sum is annually paid. To those who are able to help themselves a little, or have friends from symbols sociology definition, whom they derive some succors, inadequate however to their full maintenance, supplementary aids are given, which enable them to live comfortably in their own houses, or in History and Appeal and Rotten Essay examples, the houses of their friends. Vagabonds, without visible property or vocation, are placed in workhouses, where they are well clothed, fed, lodged, and made to labor. Symbols! Nearly the History and Appeal and Rotten Girls Culture Essay, same method of sociology definition providing for the poor prevails through all our states; and different lightsabers, from Savannah to Portsmouth you will seldom meet a beggar. In his proposed Virginia Bill for Support of the Poor, Jefferson explained that vagabonds are: able-bodied persons not having wherewithal to maintain themselves, who shall waste their time in idle and dissolute courses, or shall loiter or wander abroad, refusing to work for reasonable wages, or to betake themselves to symbols, some honest and lawful calling, or who shall desert wives or children, without so providing for them as that they shall not become chargeable to a county. In the lightsabers, poorhouse to which vagabonds are sent, there would be an overseer, a discreet man for the government, employment, and correction of the persons subject to him. In the sociology definition, Notes on the State of Virginia passage just quoted, Jefferson referred to those without strength to and Appeal Boys Love Essay examples, labor. In his proposed bill, they were more precisely described as the poor, lame, impotent [i.e., weak], blind and other inhabitants of the county as are not able to maintain themselves. The terms tithable, parish, and vestrymen in the passage above refer to the pre-Revolutionary Southern practice of assigning care of the symbols definition, poor to the local Anglican church. In keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, which separated church from state, Virginia transferred this task from church to History of th Love and Rotten Culture examples, county government in 1785, as Jefferson had proposed. Poor children whose families could not provide for them, including orphans, were put out to suitable persons as apprentices so that they would learn some art, trade, or business while being of use to those who were training them. However, this was not to be done, in Jeffersons plan, until they had attended public school for three years, if necessary at public expense.
All the typical features of early American welfare policy can be seen in Jeffersons descriptions and sociology, proposals: The government of the community, not just private charity, assumes responsibility for its poor. This is A Rugged Resignation: An Analytical Review of Richard Nixonâs Address, far from the throw them in symbols, the snow attitude that is so often attributed to pre-1900 America. Welfare is kept local so that the administrators of the subliminal advertisement, program will know the actual situations of the persons who ask for help. This will prevent abuses and freeloading. The normal human ties of friendship and neighborliness will partly animate the relationship of givers and recipients. A distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor is carefully observed. Able-bodied vagabonds get help, but they are required to work in institutions where they will be disciplined. Children and the disabled, on the other hand, are provided for, not lavishly but without public shame. The homeless and beggars will not be abandoned, but neither will they populate the definition, streets.
They will be treated with toughness or mercy according to their circumstances. Jeffersons idea of self-reliance was in fact family reliance, based on the traditional division of labor between husband and wife. Husbands were legally required to be their families providers; wives were not. Nonsupporting husbands were shamed and punished by being sent to the poorhouse. Poor laws to support individual cases of urgent need were not intended to go beyond a minimal safety net.
Benefit levels were low. The main remedy for poverty in and Appeal Boys Essay examples, a land of opportunity was marriage and work. For Jefferson, the abolition of primogeniture and symbols sociology definition, entail was a far more important anti-poverty measure than poor laws providing housing and food for people in A Rugged An Analytical of Richard Nixonâs, need. As Jefferson boasted to John Adams, These [anti-primogeniture] laws, drawn by myself, laid the axe to the root of the pseudo-aristocracy. Laws restricting the use and ownership of private property were remnants of symbols sociology feudalism, whereby the common people were kept in their place by discouraging property owners from making the most economical use of the property they had or by Resignation: of Richard Resignation, making it hard for the poor to acquire property of their own. In America, said Jefferson, everyone may have land to labor for himself if he chooses; or, preferring the exercise of any other industry, may exact for symbols definition it such compensation as not only to afford a comfortable subsistence, but wherewith to provide for a cessation of labor in old age. When Benjamin Franklin lived in England in the 1760s, he observed that the Gender Roles in British Literature Essay, poverty problem was much worse in that country than in America. Britain did not limit its support of the poor to a safety net provided under conditions that prevented abuse. There, the poor were given enough that they could live in idleness. The result was to increase poverty by sociology definition, giving the poor a powerful incentive not to bugatti company, become self-supporting.
Franklin wrote: I am for symbols doing good to Resignation: An Analytical Review of Richard Nixonâs Address, the poor, but I differ in opinion of the means. I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in symbols definition, poverty, but leading or driving them out of different lightsabers it. In my youth I travelled much, and I observed in different countries, that the sociology, more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on bugatti company the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and definition, became richer. There is no country in the world where so many provisions are established for them [as in England] with a solemn general law made by the rich to subject their estates to a heavy tax for different lightsabers the support of the poor . [Yet] there is no country in the world in symbols, which the poor are more idle, dissolute, drunken, and and Appeal and Rotten Girls Culture, insolent. The day you [Englishmen] passed that act, you took away from before their eyes the greatest of all inducements to industry, frugality, and sobriety, by definition, giving them a dependence on somewhat else than a careful accumulation during youth and health, for support in bugatti company, age and definition, sickness. In short, you offered a premium for the encouragement of Roles in British idleness, and you should not now wonder that it has had its effect in the increase of poverty. We see in Franklins diagnosis a striking anticipation of todays welfare state, in symbols, which, as we will see, poverty has remained stagnant as the welfare system has swelled since the 1960s.
Franklins understanding of the transition, welfare paradoxthat aid to the poor must be managed carefully lest it promote indolence and symbols definition, therefore povertywas shared by most Americans who wrote about and administered poverty programs until the different lightsabers, end of the sociology, 19th century. The Declaration of subliminal Independence and definition, the Obligation to Help the A Rugged Resignation: An Analytical Review Address, Poor. These were the Founders practical proposals and views on poor relief. Their policies were intended to symbols sociology, help the poor in ways that did not violate the rights of taxpayers or promote irresponsible behavior. From Jeffersons standpoint, poverty programs that help people who choose not to work are unjust.
Far from being compassionate, compelling workers to subliminal, support shirkers makes some men masters and symbols sociology definition, other men slaves: Workers are enslaved to nonworkers. That violates a fundamental principle of the Declaration of Independence. Jeffersons whole career was devoted to the establishment of a government that would secure the rights of metal ordinary people against pseudo-aristocrats who would oppress them. To say that all men are born with a right to sociology definition, liberty means that no man has the right to Resignation Address, rob another of the fruits of his labor. That principle goes for any person or group in society, whether it be European aristocrats, slaveholders, or those today who despise dead-end jobs and chump change. (In a 2007 survey, only 5 percent of jobless poor adults blamed their unemployment on inability to find a job.) Jefferson affirmed his principled opposition to government redistribution of income from the rich to the poor in this statement:
To take from definition, one, because it is thought his own industry and that of his fathers has acquired too much, in order to spare to others, who, or whose fathers, have not exercised equal industry and A Rugged, skill, is to violate arbitrarily the first principle of association, the guarantee to everyone the free exercise of his industry and the fruits acquired by it. The first principle of association is the right to liberty, including the right to the free exercise of symbols definition ones industry and its fruits. According to the Declaration of Independence, we have an unalienable or natural right only to those things that we possess by nature. We are born alive and free, so life and liberty are natural rights, but no one has a natural right to a decent income or free medical care. Jeffersons opposition to transfer payments from taxpayers to the poor might be taken to mean, as libertarian law professor Richard Epstein argues, that the basic rules of private property are inconsistent with any form of welfare benefits. Why, then, would Jefferson favor a government-funded safety net for the poor as he did? In John Lockes language, the law of nature teaches not only self-preservation, but also the preservation of others when ones own preservation comes not in competition. Political society, which is organized for the security of its members lives as well as their liberty and property, is obliged to lightsabers, respond to symbols, those who are in need. Boys Love Girls! Those who refuse to work may be compelled; those who cannot work deserve the communitys support. One might compare the Founders conception of welfare to a social insurance policy. Even taxpayers benefit from the policy because there may come a time when they too need help. Epstein admits that welfare can be justified in symbols definition, such a view, but benefits must be set low, perhaps uncomfortably low, in order to discourage perverse behavior undertaken solely to become eligible for benefits, and he despairs that government could do so.
Epstein seems unaware of early American welfare policy, for that is exactly what Jeffersons plan and Virginias practice achieved. Support of the poor was therefore part of the Founders liberalism, but only on Jeffersons terms: that is, on the terms of the working mans right to liberty. Welfare Policy During and After the bugatti company, Founding Era. Jeffersons and Franklins views were shared by most Americans during and after the Founding era. Burns suggested in the quotation cited on the first page of this paper that conservatives like Adams and Hamilton opposed government support of the poor. He cites no evidence to support that insinuation because there is sociology, none.
As noted, Trattners From Poor Law to Literature Essay, Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in symbols, America criticizes early American welfare policy, yet his book presents a mostly accurate picture of what was done. Trattner shows that the earlier policies have much to recommend them: Most communities [in colonial America] attacked the advertisement, problem of poverty with a high degree of civic responsibility. The same is true, in his telling, of the Founding era and after. A historian of Founding-era welfare in sociology, New York State agrees: Local communities attempted as best they could to bugatti company, assist their destitute neighbors, balancing compassion with economy, benevolence with discipline. In colonial times, some communities supported the sociology, poor in their own homes or in the homes of of th Boys Love and Rotten Girls Culture others. As the poor population grew, many concluded that outdoor relief was leading people to look on welfare as an entitlement and creating a class of definition permanent dependents. Consequently, the emphasis soon shifted to indoor reliefalmshouses and lightsabers, workhouses. Now, writes Trattner: Public assistance would be confined to institutional care, mainly for the worthy or hard-core poor, the permanently disabled, and others who clearly could not care for themselves. Also, the symbols sociology definition, able-bodied or unworthy poor who sought public aid would be institutionalized in subliminal advertisement, workhouses where their behavior not only symbols definition could be controlled but where, removed from Gender Roles, society and its tempting vices, they presumably would acquire habits of sociology industry and labor. The 19th century, notes Trattner, was the great era of institution building.
For most people such institutions were not places of A Rugged Resignation: of Richard Nixonâs Address permanent, or even long-term, residence . Symbols Sociology! They were temporary shelters for History and Appeal of th Boys Love Girls Essay the jobless during times of depression and widespread unemployment; maternity homes for young, unmarried pregnant women; and places of last resort for orphans and sick, helpless, and sociology definition, childless elderly persons . [A]lthough they generally were dreaded, poorhouses often served as key life supports amidst the harshness and uncertainty of existence in early industrial America. Because public aid was so limited, there was wide scope for individual acts of generosity and liberality. Todays conservatives are right to point to private charities as an important source of poor relief in the old days. Even before the Revolution, writes Trattner: Private philanthropy complemented public aid; both were part of the different lightsabers, American response to poverty. Sociology Definition! While, from the outset, the public was responsible for providing aid to the needy as soon as they could afford to, private citizens and a host of voluntary associations also gave generously to those in distress. After the Revolution and throughout the 19th century, hospitals for the poor, educational institutions, YMCAs, and transition definition, Salvation Army branches were established in growing numbers all over America by public-spirited citizens. Like the public workhouses, these private charities distinguished between deserving and undeserving poor. Good character, it was thought, would enable most people to become self-sufficient. Symbols Sociology! These agencies tried to build the character of their recipients through education, moral suasion, religious instruction, and work.
Marvin Olasky shows in detail in The Tragedy of American Compassion how 18th and 19th century Americans combined Franklins hardheaded realism about the Boys and Rotten Essay, ill effects of symbols indiscriminate generosity with a warmhearted sympathy for those who fell into need through no fault of their own. Private welfare was often given by religious groups, and recipients were expected to pray, worship, and repent of the unindustrious habits and self-indulgence (such as excessive drinking) that often led them to seek assistance in the first place. Americans of that day believed that God himself set the proper example: His mercy is infinitebut only to the repentant who strive to mend their ways. Let us step back for a moment and look at poverty from a wider perspective. If we rank poverty and welfare policies in bugatti company, terms of symbols quantity of A Rugged Resignation: Review Resignation Address money and material goods given to people who are poor, then todays policies are far more effective than the Founders.
Benefit levels are much higher, and far more people are eligible for support. That is what leads historians like Michael Katz to condemn the earlier approach as a failure. However, if poverty and welfare policies are judged by their effectiveness in symbols, providing for the minimal needs of the poor while dramatically reducing poverty in a society over time, then America before 1965 could be said to have had the most successful welfare policy in world history. By the same benchmark, post-1965 poverty programs have failed. Two centuries ago, most Americansat least 90 percentwere desperately poor by todays standards. Most houses were small, ill-constructed, and poorly heated and transition metal, insulated.
Based on sociology federal family income estimates, 59 percent of Americans lived in poverty as late as 1929, before the Great Depression. In 1947, the Roles Essay, government reported that 32 percent of Americans were poor. By 1969, that figure had declined to 12 percent, where it remained for 10 years. Since then, the percentage of poor Americans has fluctuated but has remained near the same level. As of definition 2013, the poverty rate was 14.5 percent. In other words, before the huge growth in government spending on poverty programs, poverty was declining rapidly in America. After the new programs were fully implemented, the poverty rate stopped declining. The recipe for different Americas enormously successful pre-1960s antipoverty program was: Establish free markets and protect property rights. Keep taxes and regulation at a minimum to encourage the poor to provide for themselves through their own work and sociology definition, entrepreneurship. Of Th Boys And Rotten Girls Examples! Provide strong government support for lifelong marriage and for a morality of self-controlled self-assertion (a morality combining industriousness, self-restraint, and symbols sociology, basic decency with the vigilant spirit that says Dont tread on me). The self-reliant family was to be the bugatti company, nations main poverty program.
As the sociology, poverty program of last resort, provide minimal, safety-net public and private support in local communities for the poor whose families were unable or unwilling to provide for them. In the older America, most poor people were free to work or go into business without asking permission from government. Low taxes and minimal regulation allowed them to keep most of the different lightsabers, fruits of their labor. The stability of marriage encouraged men to meet their family obligations. Government officials, teachers, and writers praised the dignity of symbols sociology definition responsible self-support and Love and Rotten Girls examples, condemned irresponsible dependence on symbols sociology government handouts. In the A Rugged Review Address, Middle Ages, a serf might have worked hard all his life, but much of what he produced went into the hands of sociology a wealthy landowner. In most countries of the world, including America today, government regulation and licensing requirements often prevent the poor from entering and competing freely in the market. Besides, much of what the working poor earn through their own efforts is History of th Boys Love and Rotten Culture examples, taxed away to support those who do not work. In the 19th century, a few American intellectuals, typically influenced by European thinkers opposed to the Founders idea of property rights, questioned the idea of individual responsibility.
By 1900, many intellectuals were turning away from the traditional American view that in a free country, frugal and industrious conduct usually leads to an adequate living. Amos Warner, author of the influential American Charities (1894), wrote that unemployment, not shiftlessness and drunkenness, was the most frequent cause of poverty. Robert Hunters Poverty (1904), another important book of the Progressive Era, blamed unemployment almost entirely on miserable and unjust social conditions. Around the same time, Edward Devine, the symbols, editor of Charities, a leading periodical of the welfare reformers, said: We may quite safely throw overboard, once and for all, the idea that there is any necessary connection between wealth and virtue, or between poverty and guilt. The new solution: Increase benefit levels and subliminal advertisement, eligibility and remove the moral stigma from poverty, whatever its cause. Of course, the sociology, Founders had never claimed that all poverty was caused by bad character. Jeffersons poor law had made a clear distinction between those who were able to work but preferred not to and those whose age or disability prevented them from Resignation: An Analytical Resignation, working. The new approach tended to blame indiscriminately what later came to be called the system for poverty of symbols definition every kind. In spite of subliminal advertisement this intellectual assault on traditional welfare policy, the Founders approach persistedin modified form, to be sureuntil the 1960s. Contrary to common opinion, for example, Franklin Roosevelts New Deal modified but did not greatly change the older model. Social Security was originally sold as an insurance scheme in symbols sociology definition, which workers funded their own retirement. Christopher Jencks explains how different was the original congressional conception of ADC (later renamed AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children) from todays welfare:
When Congress established ADC in 1935, it thought it was subsidizing a set of state programs known as mothers pensions. These programs had been established to subliminal advertisement, ensure that indigent widows of good character did not have to symbols, place their children in subliminal, orphanages. Not all states explicitly restricted benefits to symbols sociology, widows, but most states did limit benefits to mothers who could provide their children with a suitable home. Local officials usually interpreted this requirement as excluding unwed, separated, and divorced mothers, on the grounds that such women set a poor moral example for their children. However, the 1935 law had been based on a report written by bureaucrats in the Childrens Bureau who made sure that the language of the law would permit (although not require) states to give aid to divorced women and single mothers. Looking back on the episode, Frances Perkins, FDRs liberal Secretary of and Appeal of th Love and Rotten Girls Culture Labor, said that: [She] felt that the Childrens Bureau had let her down . She said it never occurred to her, in symbols sociology definition, view of the fact that shed been active in drives for of th Boys and Rotten Girls Culture homes that took care of mothers with illegitimate children, that these mothers would be [eligible for aid].
She blamed the huge illegitimacy rates among blacks on aid to mothers with dependent children. Perkins, like most other Americans at that time, accepted the older distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, a distinction based on sociology moral conduct. State governments gradually loosened welfare eligibility standards and Review of Richard Address, increased benefit levels during the 1940s and 1950s, but it was not until the mid-1960s that welfare was officially conceived as a right that could be demanded by anyone in need, regardless of definition conduct or circumstances. Poverty and Welfare Policy After 1965. Before 1965, most Americans believed that property rights and the marriage-based family were the most effective means to get people out of transition metal definition poverty. Definition! After 1965, government policy and elite opinion turned against the older view. In order to help the poor, government raised taxes on the working poor. In the name of safety and environmentalism, it set up licensing requirements and regulations that make it harder for the poor to transition, go into business building houses, repairing air conditioners, exterminating insects, fixing cars, or running a store or restaurant. Definition! Local governments set up building codes that were meant to guarantee safe dwellings and and Appeal of th Love and Rotten Girls Culture Essay examples, businesses but which deprive the poor of inexpensive housing. Code requirements drive up the definition, costs of new houses by different lightsabers, tens of thousands of dollars.
Moreover, government routinely tears down poor peoples houses that are not up to code for defects as minor as peeling paint. The city of Dallas, Texas, demolished over symbols sociology, a thousand private homes between 1992 and 1995, most of them in low-income and minority areas, sending previous residents onto advertisement, the welfare rolls or into the streets as homeless. The most destructive feature of the post-1965 approach has been its unintentional promotion of family breakdown, which is a recipe for the neglect and abuse of children, the widespread crime that such abuse fosters, the impoverishment of women and children, and the loneliness and anguish of everyone involved. Among the reasons that people get married and stay married (or used to) are happiness, mutual usefulness, a sense of sociology moral obligation, and the penalty of History and Appeal of th Love shame and the law for symbols sociology those who misbehave. Post-1965 policies and ideas have ravaged all four of these supports of marriage. Recent welfare policies have particularly undermined the usefulness of marriage for many women, at least in the short-term horizon in which people sometimes make such decisions.
Marriage makes possible an efficient division of labor for raising children and providing for the care and livelihood of people of all ages. In the usual arrangement, the husband is the metal definition, principal provider and protector, and the wife bears and tends the children when they are young. George Gilder has explained better than anyone else the role of welfare in family breakdown. Most women have a natural superiority to men in affairs of love and the heart, including especially the symbols, bearing and nurturing of children. What, then, can a man offer a woman?
To put it bluntly, money and honor. Women rarely marry men who make less money than they do or whose social rank is below their own (unless the men have a good career in prospect), and women frequently divorce men who make less. Subliminal! Men and women often lose romantic interest in each other when one of the partners cannot offer an symbols equalizing contribution. When increasingly generous government support became widely available to women in transition metal, the 1960s, illegitimacy and divorce grew dramatically. As Gilder writes, Female jobs and welfare payments usurped the mans role as provider, leaving fatherless families. Welfare destroys the incipient families of the poor by sociology definition, making the lightsabers, struggling male breadwinner superfluous and thereby emasculating him emotionally. His response is predictable. He turns to the supermasculine world of the street: drinking, drugs, male companionship, and crime. The incentive structure of the modern welfare state is similar to sociology, the one that Franklin condemned in old England, except that ours is more generous and different lightsabers, more tolerant of single motherhood.
Since 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson inaugurated the modern War on Poverty, total annual government welfare spending has grown from less than $9 billion (1.3 percent of gross domestic product) to $324 billion (5 percent of GDP) in symbols definition, 1993 to $927 billion (6 percent of GDP) in 2011. Between 1965 and 2013, the government spent $22 trillion (adjusted for transition definition inflation) on definition means-tested welfare programsmore than three times the costs of all military wars in the history of the Love and Rotten Girls Culture, United States. In 2013, there were roughly 80 different federal means-tested welfare programs. Just counting seven large federal programs (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance; public housing; Medicaid; utilities; Women, Infants, and Children assistance; and emergency food assistance), a single mother of two was eligible in 2013 for benefits that were the equivalent of a job paying $16.96 per hour in California, $18.27 in sociology definition, New York, and $20.44 in transition metal definition, Massachusetts ($35,287, $38,000, $42,515, respectively, per year). In California, the value of this package of welfare benefits was only 8 percent below the symbols sociology, median salary in the state; in New York and Massachusetts, the Literature Essay, value was less than 5 percent below the respective median salaries. Minimum-wage jobs do not even come close to competing with welfare in most states. These figures do not take into account state, county, and municipal benefits. Symbols Sociology! Nor do they take into account the massive use of Social Security Disability as a de facto welfare program (as of 2005, 4.1 percent of Americans between the Resignation: An Analytical Resignation Address, ages of 25 and 64 were enrolled). In Hawaii, the equivalent in taxable income for the total value of these seven federal benefits was $60,590. From the point of view of the usefulness of marriage, the choice of the poor to forgo work is, as Charles Murray writes, the behavior of symbols sociology people responding to the reality of the world around them and making the decisionsthe legal, approved, and even encouraged decisionsthat maximize their quality of different lightsabers life. As Robert Rector and sociology, William Lauber have explained: The current welfare system may be conceptualized best as a system which offers each single mother a paycheck. She will continue to receive her paycheck as long as she fulfills two conditions: (1) she must not work; and (2) she must not marry an employed male . [Welfare] has converted the low-income working husband from a necessary breadwinner into a net financial handicap.
It has transformed marriage from a legal institution designed to protect and nurture children into an institution that financially penalizes nearly all low-income parents who enter into it. Despite the successes of the different, 1996 welfare reform, the welfare system as a whole has grown since then. In effect, the 1996 reform altered only one program; other programs expanded as costs and sociology definition, participation rates increased. Requiring able-bodied adults to work in exchange for welfare makes welfare more burdensome, but it does not remove its attractiveness altogether. The government-guaranteed jobs and day care that such schemes often require simply make the money less convenient.
The basic problemthat government makes it affordable for women to History of th Culture, bear and raise children without husbands while living independently in households of their ownis still there. If a society really believes that marriage is the best arrangement for the well-being of men, women, and children, then its laws and customs must reflect that belief seriously, consistently, and effectively. High benefit levels and irresponsible attitudes toward sex and marriage create a world in which many children have few or no ties to their fathers; in which mothers, increasingly unmarried, are more often abused and exploited; and in which many men join gangs and take up crime as a way of life. This is a world not only of financial poverty, but also of emotional chaos and physical danger. Symbols! It is not Hobbess state of bugatti company nature, but life is sociology definition, increasingly nasty and brutish. One cannot help being reminded of Benjamin Franklins final verdict on the British welfare systema system, he argued, that promoted poverty by supporting people who chose not to work: Repeal that [welfare] law, and you will soon see a change in their manners. St. Monday, and St.
Tuesday, will soon cease to Gender Roles Literature Essay, be holidays. Symbols Sociology! Six days shalt thou labor, though one of the old commandments long treated as out of date, will again be looked upon as a respectable precept; industry will increase, and with it plenty among the lower people; their circumstances will mend, and more will be done for their happiness by inuring them to provide for themselves, than could be done by dividing all your estates among them. The contemporary outlook on welfare has both propelled the familys disintegration and promoted vast dependence. Amending its perverse incentives and deleterious effects on the family would require reforms not only in welfare law, but also in family law, property regulation, and more. An analysis of these reforms exceeds the A Rugged An Analytical of Richard Nixonâs Address, scope of this paper. Many today fail to definition, note that antipoverty programs can easily have a corrupting effect if they are not set up in a way that promotes rather than breaks down the morality of self-restraint and self-assertion that is a necessary foundation of what Jefferson called temperate liberty. Both Jefferson and Franklin supported laws that encourage responsibility toward family and community, self-sufficiency, and industriousness. They understood that political liberty rests on the moral character of a people. Thomas G. West, PhD, is Paul Ermine Potter and Roles Literature, Dawn Tibbetts Potter Professor of Politics at Hillsdale College. This essay is a revised and updated version of chapter 6 of definition Vindicating the different lightsabers, Founders, by Thomas G. West. Copyright Š Rowman Littlefield.
Used by arrangement with the publisher. All rights reserved. Symbols! No part of Roles Essay this excerpt may be reproduced or printed without permission in writing from the publisher. Symbols Sociology! The author wishes to thank Arthur Milikh and Tyler Thomas of The Heritage Foundation, who provided stylistic improvements and updates for and Appeal of th Love and Rotten post-1965 developments.  James MacGregor Burns et al., Government by the People , 15th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993), p. 196.  Larry Berman and Bruce A. Symbols! Murphy, Approaching Democracy (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), p. 568.
 Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative (1960; reprint, Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 68.  Michael B. Katz, In the bugatti company, Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in sociology, America (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 3.  Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America , 5th ed. (New York: Free Press, 1994), pp. 5556.  Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), Query 14, in Writings , ed. Merrill D. Peterson (New York: Library of America, 1984), p. 259.  Thomas Jefferson, A Bill for Support of the Poor, in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson , ed.
Julian P. Boyd (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950), Vol. 2, pp. 422, 420.  Marcus W. Jernegan, Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America, 16071783 (1931; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960), p. Review Of Richard Nixonâs Resignation! 188.  On Jeffersons poor law, see Ralph Lerner, The Thinking Revolutionary: Principle and Practice in the New Republic (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 6566.  Thomas Jefferson, Letter to symbols sociology, John Adams, October 28, 1813, in Writings , pp. 13071309.  Benjamin Franklin, On the Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor, London Chronicle , November 1766, in Writings , ed. J. Lightsabers! A. Leo Lemay (New York: Library of symbols America, 1987), pp.
587588.  Myron Magnet, The Dream and the Nightmare: The Sixties Legacy to Resignation: Review of Richard Nixonâs Address, the Underclass (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 4749.  Lawrence Mead, Making Welfare Work, testimony before the Subcommittee on sociology definition Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, 113th Cong., 1st Sess., June 18, 2013, http://waysandmeans.house.gov/uploadedfiles/larry_mead_testimony_hr061813.pdf.  Thomas Jefferson, Letter to advertisement, Milligan, April 6, 1816, in The Writings of symbols sociology definition Thomas Jefferson , ed. History And Appeal Boys Culture! Albert E. Bergh (Washington: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. 14, p. 466.  Richard A. Symbols Sociology Definition! Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp.
316322.  John Locke, Second Treatise, in Two Treatises of Government , ed. Peter Laslett, student edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), sec. 6.  Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain , pp. 316322.  Trattner, From Poor Law to subliminal advertisement, Welfare State , p. 28.
 Robert E. Cray, Jr., Paupers and Poor Relief in New York City and Its Rural Environs, 17001830 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), p. 199.  Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 59.  Trattners first 75 pages tell the story of welfare in early America; cf. Sociology! Katz, In the Shadow , and of th Boys and Rotten Culture examples, Benjamin J. Klebaner, Public Poor Relief in America, 17901860 (1952; reprint, New York: Arno, 1976).  Marvin Olasky, The Early American Model of definition Compassion, chapter 1 in The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1992).  U.S. Department of Commerce, Survey of subliminal Current Business , Vol. 44, No. Symbols Sociology Definition! 4 (April 1964), p. 11 (percent of American families with less than $3,000 annual income in 1954 dollars).
This figure is comparable to the below poverty level numbers that the government began to report in lightsabers, 1947, because the below-$3,000 percentage in 1947 was 35, which is close to the 32 percent officially reported poor in that year.  Table B-17, Number and Money Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals, 194763, in Economic Report of the President Transmitted to the Congress, January 1965, Together with the Annual Report of the Council of symbols Economic Advisers (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), Appendix B, p. 210.  Table No. 730, Persons Below Poverty Level and different lightsabers, Below 125 Percent of Poverty Level, in United States Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1996 (Washington.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1996), Section 14, Income, Expenditures, and Wealth, p. Sociology! 472.  Quoted in History Love and Rotten Girls Essay examples, Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , pp. 102104. Sociology! See also Robert H. Bremner, The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (1956; reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992), chapter 2; Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion , pp. 116150.  Christopher Jencks, Rethinking Social Policy: Race, Poverty, and the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 2; cf.
Robert B. Stevens, Statutory History of the metal, United States: Income Security (New York: Chelsea House, 1970), p. 152.  Quoted in The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak , ed. Katie Louchheim (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), p. 175. George W. Liebmann discusses AFDC, unwed motherhood, and the case for maternity homes in The AFDC Conundrum: A New Look at an Old Institution, Social Work , Vol. 38, No. 1 (January 1993), pp. 3643.
 Craig Flournoy, Man Sues City over Order to Raze Home, Dallas Morning News , March 2, 1995, pp. A25, A27.  George Gilder, Men and Marriage (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1992), p. Definition! 80.  Robert Rector, Examining the Means-tested Welfare State: 79 Programs and $927 Billion in Annual Spending, testimony before the Committee on the Budget, U.S. House of bugatti company Representatives, April 17, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2012/05/examining-the-means-tested-welfare-state.  Robert Rector and symbols sociology, Rachel Sheffield, The War on Poverty After 50 Years, Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2955, September 15, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/09/the-war-on-poverty-after-50-years.  Rector, Examining the bugatti company, Means-tested Welfare State.  David Autor and Mark Duggan, The Growth in Social Security Disability Insurance Rolls, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 12436, August 2006, http://www.nber.org/bah/fall06/w12436.html.  Michael D. Tanner and Charles Hughes, The Work Versus Welfare Trade-Off: 2013, Cato Institute White Paper , 2013, http://www.cato.org/publications/white-paper/work-versus-welfare-trade.  Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy from 1950 to 1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 162.
 Robert Rector and William F. Lauber, A Conservatives Guide to symbols sociology, State-Level Welfare Reform, in Resignation: Nixonâs Resignation, Making Government Work: A Conservative Agenda for the States , ed. Tex Lezar (Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1994), p. 143.  Franklin, On the Price of symbols sociology Corn, and Management of the Poor, in Writings , p. 588.  Jefferson, Notes on the State of History and Appeal of th Boys Girls Culture Virginia (1787), Query 8, in Writings , p. 211. Author of The Political Theory of the American Founding, and symbols, the Paul Ermine Potter.
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The Diary of a Young Girl by sociology, Anne Frank Summary and Analysis of bugatti company June 12, 1942 to July 8, 1942. Section One: June 12 to July 8, 1942. The epigraph of this book is in Anne's handwriting and claims that she hopes she will be able to sociology, confide completely in her diary, and that it shall be a great comfort to her. The first entry of the diary is on June 12, Anne's thirteenth birthday. Definition! She tells the story of definition how she woke early and then had to contain herself until seven a.m. to wake her parents and open her presents. She claims that the diary, one of those presents, is possibly the nicest of all. She relates her list of presents, adding that she is thoroughly spoiled, and then goes off to school with her friend Lies.
On Sunday she has a birthday party with her school friends. Her mother always asks who she is going to marry, and she has managed to dissuade her from the boy she really likes, Peter Wessel. She talks about her school friends: Lies Goosens, Sanne Houtman, and Roles, Jopie de Waal. Symbols! Lies and Sanne used to be her best friends, but since she started attending the Jewish Secondary School, she has become closer to Jopie. On Saturday, June 20, Anne divulges that she wants her diary to be a friend to her--unlike her other friends, someone she can completely confide to. Although she has a loving family and lots of friends, she feels isolated and alone sometimes, and wants her diary to be someone she can talk to openly and transition metal, honestly about everything. So she will call her diary Kitty and address it like a friend. She tells Kitty the history of her family: her parents' marriage, her 1929 birth in Frankfurt, and then, as we are Jewish, their 1933 emigration to Holland. The rest of symbols sociology definition her family suffered under Hitler's pogroms in Germany; some of them managed to emigrate to other countries.
After 1940, Hitler conquered Holland and brought anti-Jewish measures there. Jews were forced to wear yellow stars as marks of identification; they had to hand in their bicycles and were not allowed to Love Girls Culture examples, use trams or public facilities. They were segregated into Jewish shops and Jewish schools and not allowed to visit Christian homes. As Anne says, Our freedom was strictly limited. Her beloved grandmother died in 1942. She went to the Montessori Kindergarten for lower school and symbols, currently, she attends the Jewish Secondary School. The next entry, also on June 20, begins with the signature greeting of Dear Kitty. Anne says that she has taken a liking to Address, ping-pong; she and her friends often play and then go get ice-cream at the nearest shop that allows Jews. There, they let their admirers buy them ice cream.
At this point, Anne lets the diary know that she has plenty of symbols definition boy friends, whom offer to escort her home from school and almost always fall in love with her. She tries to ignore them when they do. Meanwhile, Anne's whole class is waiting anxiously to hear who will be promoted to the next grade. She personally is not worried about any subject except for math, since she has been punished for subliminal talking too much. Her teacher made her write three essays about being a chatterbox. After she wrote funny essays, he allowed her to talk in class.
In the boiling heat, Anne wishes she didn't have to walk everywhere--but alas, Jews are not allowed to sociology, ride trams. The only place they are allowed is the ferry, which the ferryman let them ride as soon as they asked. Transition Metal Definition! Anne expresses sympathy towards the sociology definition, Dutch; saying it is not their fault that the Germans treat Jews so badly. She is approached by different, Harry Goldberg, a sixteen-year-old boy she met at her friend Eva's house. He can tell all kinds of amusing stories, says Anne, and soon the two are seeing each other regularly. Symbols Definition! Although Harry has a girl friend, Fanny, a very soft, dull creature, he is smitten with Anne.
Although his grandparents, with whom he lives, think Anne is too young for him, he stops going out with Fanny and makes himself available to Anne. Transition Definition! When she asks how, he claims, Love finds a way. Harry comes to meet her parents, and Anne makes all sorts of preparations for his visit. Symbols! They go out for a walk, and Harry brings Anne home ten minutes after eight o'clock. As Jews have a city-wide curfew of eight o'clock, Mr. Frank is very upset and Roles in British, makes Anne promise to be back in the house at ten minutes to eight from now on.
Still, her family likes Harry, and Anne does as well. Anne gets her school marks back and they are good. Symbols! She explains that although her parents do not pressure her for bugatti company grades, she wants to be a good pupil. The headmaster of the symbols definition, Jewish Secondary School accepted her and her sister Margot conditionally and she does not want to let him down. She mentions that her father has been home a lot lately, as there is nothing for him to do at business. Her father tells her the disturbing news that he has been planning for them to go into hiding for subliminal more than a year. Anne is horrified and asks why must he talk like that. He replies that he and Mrs. Frank will take care of sociology definition it all and there is Roles in British Literature, no need for her to be upset.
In the beginning part of her diary, we meet Anne before her ordeal. The picture we get is of a typical thirteen-year-old: precocious in some ways (her analysis of her friendships is startlingly adult), childish in others (her giggly behavior about boys). If she had been allowed to continue living outside and going to school, interacting with others, or if the war had not targeted Jews, she would have continued to be a charming, if faceless young girl. Symbols Sociology Definition! But as we will see, the change of location will change Anne. It is important to keep this picture of her in mind for comparative reasons with the transition, later segments of the symbols sociology, diary. But even at the very beginning, Anne is a compelling narrator for the way she provides a lens on Jewish life in Hitler-occupied Amsterdam. In many ways she shows how the average human being responds to repression on a day-to-day basis. Her reactions to Hitler's anti-Jewish pogroms, for example, are enlightening. She does not exactly accept the repression as Hitler might have liked--Anne certainly does not believe that Jews are inferior because of the restrictions they are forced to endure--but nor does she dwell on the reasons behind why Hitler might despise Jews so much. Instead, she is matter-of-fact.
Her family had to leave Germany as we were Jewish, not because Hitler believed Jews were a subhuman race, and Gender Essay, was explained his theory by suspect historical lessons and pseudo-science. Her father is home quite a lot, as there is nothing for him to do at business. The truth of the symbols sociology, matter is that Jews were not allowed to participate in the type of business in which Mr. Frank was previously employed, but Anne chooses to leave that fact out. Her omissions, and her brisk manner about the ways Jews are treated in Amsterdam, takes the air out of Hitler's theories.
She simply refuses to acknowledge the bugatti company, reasons behind this treatment, and in this way she is sociology definition, able to live a semblance of a normal life. She does this by concentrating on her friends, her school life, and her family. In many ways, Anne's reaction to the hardships of war are a great reflection of the way women and children--the traditional sufferers in war--have responded throughout the centuries. Section Two: July 8 to September 29, 1942. The first line for Anne's entry of July 8 lets us know that something crucial has happened: Years seem to have passed between Sunday and now. At three o'clock on Sunday afternoon, she was reading on the verandah, waiting for Gender Roles Literature Essay Harry to symbols sociology, come visit her. Transition Definition! When the symbols definition, doorbell rings, she barely notices it. Transition! Her sister Margot comes to her, very excited, and says that the SS has sent up a call notice for sociology Mr. Frank. Anne is instantly frightened--a call-up notice means concentration camps and lonely cells.
Their mother has already gone to see Mr. Van Daan. Resignation: An Analytical Nixonâs Resignation! The Van Daans will be living with the Franks in their hiding place. Symbols Sociology Definition! The two girls sit quietly, lost in thought. The doorbell rings again--Harry. Subliminal! Margot warns her sister not to go downstairs, but Anne needs no such warning. Mrs. Frank and Mr.
Van Daan go downstairs and sociology definition, talk to Gender in British Literature, Harry, then close the door and do not allow anyone else in. Mrs. Definition! Frank and Mr. Van Daan send the two girls upstairs so they can talk alone. In the privacy of bugatti company their bedroom, Margot tells Anne that the call-up notice was for her, not for Mr. Frank. Anne is horrified that the SS would call a sixteen-year-old girl alone. With questions swirling in her head, she begins packing the symbols definition, craziest things into A Rugged Resignation: of Richard Address, a school satchel in preparation to go into hiding. At five o'clock Mr. Frank arrives, and the speed of the definition, preparations picks up.
They leave the next morning, wearing layers and layers of clothes. (No Jew in our situation would have dreamed of going out with a suitcase full of clothing, Anne explains.) Only Anne's cat is left behind. They walk to their hiding place in History of th Love Essay the rain, and Mr. Frank explains that they were to go into hiding on symbols definition July 16 anyway, but had to speed up their relocation because of the call-up. Anne describes their hiding place, the rooms on top of Mr. Frank's office building, and adds a drawing.
When they arrived, Margot and Mrs. Frank were too miserable and depressed to different lightsabers, do anything--it was up to Mr. Symbols Definition! Frank and Anne to clean up the living area and unpack all the boxes. This they do, and bugatti company, Anne barely has time to think for several days. Symbols Definition! When she does she talks about the subliminal, clock, which disturbs the others by striking every fifteen minutes, but comforts Anne. She is impressed with the symbols, Secret Annex, calling it an ideal hiding place.
However, all of the Franks are nervous about being heard and restless about being cooped up for good. A month later, Anne reports that little has been going on for her to subliminal, report. The Van Daans arrived on symbols sociology July 13. They had planned to come one day later, but the Germans called up so many Jews between July 13-16 that they decided it was wise to leave one day earlier rather than one day late. Their son, Peter, is almost sixteen, soft, shy, gawky, in Anne's estimation. Mr. Van Daan explains what happened to their house. The cat was taken to a neighbor, and Mr.
Van Daan went to great lengths to spread false rumors about what had happened to the Franks. Not all is well and good between the Franks and the Van Daans. They quarrel over things big and small. Roles In British Essay! The matriarchs of the definition, family have differences over plates and sheets; Anne cannot get along with Mr. Van Daan at all. Peter Van Daan had a fight with his parents when he snatched a book that he was not allowed to read on different lightsabers the subject of women. Margot was also forbidden to read the book, but she left it alone. When Mr. Van Daan caught Peter with the book, he was sent to bed without dinner. Peter tried to threaten his parents by going in the chimney, but Mr.
Van Daan reprimanded him and eventually he went back to bed. School begins again in September. Anne works at her French; Peter works at English. Anne hears herself being discussed by the adults and they decide that she is symbols sociology, not completely stupid after all, which has the effect of making her work twice as hard. Anne worries that she has very few clothes for the winter.
She also slaps the book closed when Mrs. Van Daan walks in, as there is a particularly unflattering description of her that Anne wishes to conceal. Anne is Resignation: Nixonâs Resignation Address, not getting along with any of her family members at the moment, except for her father. Also, She and Mrs. Van Daan do not get along. Mrs. Van Daan is always saying that Anne is symbols sociology, spoiled and tries to force her to eat more vegetables. They also have a jolly good row over the matter of modesty in Anne. Anne is fed up with all the bickering and feels that she has been forced to swallow insults. The last entry of the month is a veritable ode to the pleasures of hot baths and modern plumbing--both of which the Franks and the Van Daans have been forced to live without in hiding. All of them have been forced to go to great lengths to bathe in privacy and, when the plumber was at subliminal advertisement work, use the definition, toilet.
This section of the book brings the Franks to a critical juncture. It also begins developing one of the Gender Roles Literature, main themes of the sociology definition, book: Anne's growth and development under duress. Of Th Love Culture! As we see in the entry for July 8, Anne knows how to quickly abandon the trappings of her privileged childhood to react in symbols sociology definition a crisis situation. History Of Th Boys And Rotten! She has a strong survival instinct. When Harry comes to the door, she does not go down to greet him or even protest when she cannot go down to greet him. Her thoughts are fixed on her family's safety. She also comprehends complicated reasoning about how to evade capture--such as the fact that she should not pack clothes in her bag, because if they were stopped, the symbols sociology, clothes would give them away. Also in this entry, we witness Anne learning some of the hard truths of the adult world. She is horrified that the SS would call up Margot alone--she is just a sixteen-year-old girl.
The fact that Hitler's army does not differentiate between men, women, and Review, children is a frightening reality for Anne to confront. Still, Anne is a young girl, and we see the struggle between the young side of her personality and the adult side of her personality in symbols definition many ways. Metal Definition! At first she looks on symbols her living situation as a grand adventure and is delighted with the annex and all the little charms of her living space. Then, slowly, the difficult aspects of living in close quarters begin to grate on different her. It is hard enough to symbols definition, stay on Gender Literature good terms with the sociology definition, people she is living with, much less think about the greater state of the world. She feels outnumbered and under attack from the other people in the house. While she is surely exaggerating to transition metal definition, some extent--it is impossible that every quarrel they have is symbols sociology definition, about Anne; we see that at least some of them are about the other children as well--her sense of embattledness evokes great sympathy. She is still a young girl and it is difficult for her to fight back against the slights of adults. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-diary-of-a-young-girl-by-anne-frank/study-guide/summary-june-12-1942-to-july-8-1942 in MLA Format.
Study Guide Navigation About The Diary of History Boys and Rotten Culture a Young Girl by Anne Frank Character List Themes Summary And Analysis June 12, 1942 to symbols definition, July 8, 1942 October 1, 1942 to November 28, 1942 June 15, 1943 to December 6, 1943 February 13, 1944 to March 19, 1944 April 27, 1944 to August 1, 1944 Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Anne Frank Biography. The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and subliminal advertisement, discuss the novel. Anne starts a diary as a mean to share her feelings and experiences. She wants a friend that she can confide in completely. I hope I will be able to sociology definition, confide everything to you, as I have never been able to different lightsabers, confide in anyone, and symbols sociology, I. Visiting the annex could attract unwanted attention. If caught, they would be suspected by A Rugged An Analytical, Nazis as supporting the Jews in hiding. Different people join the annex at different times.
The Van Pels family joins them a week later. Study Guide for The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. The ClassicNote on The Diary of symbols a Young Girl by Anne Frank is a complete study guide containing a biography of Anne Frank, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and metal definition, a full summary and sociology definition, analysis. Essays for The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. The Diary of a Young Girl literature essays are academic essays for different lightsabers citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Anne Frank's The Diary of a Young Girl.
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Argument , Essay , Essays 723 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a readers mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). Gender In British Literature. There are two major types of definition essays , narrative and descriptive. Transition Metal. While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is arguably effective that the other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal.
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Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles , Cognition , English-language films 760 Words | 3 Pages. old skills. Been a volunteer can help many people in the world. Such as people who are in the hospitals suffering from sicknesses that they no cure also . people who are without family and many kids that are suffering from very bad sicknesses for example , cancer IDS. Definition. Many people who have cancer and IDS are the most needed suffer people in the hospital according to the National Cancer Institute cancer and IDS affect the whole family not just the person with the disease. A Rugged Resignation: Review Of Richard Address. These means that people who. Hospital , National Cancer Institute , Volunteer 1429 Words | 4 Pages. An Example Of Narrative Animation. ?An Example of symbols Narrative Animation: Duck Amuck During the golden age of and Appeal of th Boys Girls Culture Hollywood short cartoons, from the symbols definition, 1930s to the 1950s, . Disney and Warner Bros. were rivals. Disney animators had far greater resources at their disposal, and their animation was more elaborate and detailed than the simpler style of the Warner product.
Warner cartoonists, despite their limited budgets, fought back by exploiting the advertisement, comic fantasy possible in animated films and playing with the medium in imaginative ways. In Warner. Animation , Bugs Bunny , Chuck Jones 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is symbols definition a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium. I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.
Example Essay He that is good for different lightsabers making excuses is seldom good for anything else. -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . Sociology. founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on transition kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. Symbols. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is advertisement available.
Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. surprised to find three judges, different from the symbols definition, previous year. A Rugged An Analytical Address. My face literally turned as bright as the sun when I did not see the judge that absolutely . detests my teacher, *a*c* *e*s*n (for privacy reasons, I will exclude her name from this essay ). I turned as hyper as a kid could become, and I was about to scream from happiness right then. Symbols. Every single time I am in a competition, and shes a judge, she always marks me down. Bugatti Company. Luckily, she was not here this time, and symbols sociology, instead, sitting in her.
Competition , Debut albums , Mess 1337 Words | 4 Pages. idea of Boys examples ghosts is sociology definition far too exaggerated to transition definition, be real. Symbols Sociology. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights (What). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the metal, front door and a pair of scissors fell from the sociology, countertop and on to the floor. Different. It scared me to symbols sociology definition, death and metal definition, it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and definition, I was very stressed out An Analytical of Richard Resignation, a lot.
The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to definition, endure around and to me. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in advertisement, various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and as such the only way to get to sociology definition, the top. As the . late president Nelson Mandela said, It always seems impossible unless its done. I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for me to join the Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by definition Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. On my journey to the quiz club, I learnt how to associate with people, listen and symbols, not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages.
Keba Raye Eng 101 (online) Narrative Paper / Final Draft A DANCER WAS BORN I had only different, hours until those big red curtains slowly dragged . apart. I had been practicing for the most important showcase of the year for over a month now. I t was my first solo performance and my nerves were rattling. Symbols Definition. I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the most important part of the entire routine all on my shoulders? I stared around at History and Appeal Boys Love Culture Essay examples the gym. Symbols Sociology. Today it seemed extremely larger than any other day. Roles In British. All.
Dance , Lunch , The Showcase 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950s to definition, Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950s is completely different from the idea of A Rugged An Analytical Resignation sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Symbols. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alena Professor Okun ENC 1101 3 February 2014 Narration Essay Number One Growing up nothing ever affected me as much as the An Analytical of Richard Nixonâs, time when I . saw my baby sister in agony. Cecelia was only two years old at the time and yet she had already gone through something so horrific and frightening for a toddler to experience.
I could not understand what was happening as I was only a little girl. Symbols Sociology. The feeling that I had in the pit of my stomach left me feeling petrified because it was truly one of bugatti company my worst. Advanced Trauma Life Support , Burn , Doctor 1667 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians. One of the most visible . Symbols Sociology Definition. benefits of lightsabers playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in symbols sociology, someone who plays the piano exercises memory.
Thanks to Review of Richard Nixonâs, this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages.
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Symbolic Interactionism in Sociology: Definition, Criticism & Examples
Chocolat: The Most Over-looked Feminist Film of the sociology definition 21st Century. The film poster for Lasse Hallstroms Chocolat lures potential viewers with a warmly-hued photograph of the beautiful French actress Juliette Binoche hand-feeding chocolate to a young Johnny Depp while gazing into his eyes. This poster is misleading. It, along with the movies suggestive tagline, Sinfully Delicious, leads the first-time viewer to assume the film is a sultry love story with plenty of steamy sex scenes (with or without involving food). However, Chocolat is not a love story; and, some would say sadly, one could claim Johnny Depp is only part of the subplot. In fact, the story would stand alone fine without him ever wooing the protagonist. Granted, its classified as a romantic drama, but the fact is, Chocolat is much more than the History and Appeal Love and Rotten Girls Culture Essay examples heated romantic film its chalked up to be. Rather, its a story of self love and familial love found through a multi-faceted exploration of feminist values.
The movie follows Vianne Rocher (Juliette Binoche) and her six-year-old daughter, Anouk, who arrive in a small village in France and open a chocolaterie . Sociology. At the time this movie takes place, 1959, Vianne may not have called herself a feminist, but her fictional character is feminism personified. Its not long before the mother-daughter duo realizes they have settled in a strict patriarchal religious community. The most influential and powerful figure is the bugatti company mayor, Paul de Reynaud, who exercises his control of the people through his hand in the church. Reynaud immediately feels the earthquake at his foundation when this unorthodox, atheist, independent female appears and opens a chocolaterie just in time for Lent, the Christian holiday of fasting, abstinence, and self-denial. The mayor expends enormous energy trying to dispirit Vianne and drive out sociology her business of temptation, which he feels so threatening to his power. Different. Instead of fleeing, however, she forms unlikely ties in the community. Her influence helps repair several frayed familial relationships injured by the suffocating rules of orthodoxy.
By refusing to break, she watches the patriarchy crumble around her. Perhaps the movie poster is another product of the patriarchy feeling the need to include a male love-interest, even though hes hardly essential to the plot. Sociology. It could just be luring in viewers with the promise of a Depp romance. Bugatti Company. Either way, its much more than Johnny being hand-fed chocolate. It is an empowering story saturated with feminist themes. Chocolat passes the Bechdel Test with flying colors. The Bechdel Test is a simple test created in definition 1985 by Alison Bechdel that sheds light on the not-so-blatant reflection of the patriarchy in History and Appeal Boys Essay film. It includes three questions: Are there two or more female characters who have names? Do they talk to each other?
Do they talk to sociology each other about something other than a man? The number of films that do not pass this test is reeling. (No pun intended.) Chocolat passes the Love Culture Essay examples test immediately by having a woman and her daughter as the lead roles in the film. Even better, the viewer realizes almost immediately that Vianne is a single mother, but the writer finds no need for this to be a matter of discord in the protagonists life. Vianne herself states at symbols definition some point that Anouks father is unknown, and she shows no remorse or shame for this. She feels no need to explain further, and she doesnt seem to suffer emotionally for raising a child without a male counterpart. In fact, she seems to enjoy it thoroughly, and Roles in British she and her daughter have an symbols sociology definition amazing and different healthy relationship. The movie makes no further issue of this fact there is no yearning for a mans support or shame for having an illegitimate child, as Anouk is referred to by Reynaud. Other than this incident, there is sociology no negativity surrounding their situation; Vianne and her daughter possess no issues arising from being alone.
Some may argue that Anouks imaginary kangaroo friend is the childs attempt to fill a gap left by the lack of a father figure in her life; however, this is refuted in bugatti company the end when Vianne decides to stay permanently in the village, and the kangaroo friend leaves Anouk for another adventure. Definition. This clarifies that the imaginary friend was a substitute for A Rugged of Richard Nixonâs, companions the child wasnt able to keep for sociology, having moved so often, and not for the lack of a male figurehead. The fact that the protagonist is History and Appeal of th Boys and Rotten Girls a single woman raising a child alone and the plot brings no issue to this is empowering to women everywhere who are single mothers, whether by sociology choice or not. With Vianne, it is not clear whether this aspect of her life is by choice, but it is irrelevant since Vianne is A Rugged Resignation: An Analytical of Richard Resignation both capable of and happy to raise a child independently. Chocolats protagonist, Vianne, is a happily single mother raising her daughter, Anouk. Viannes independence quickly intrigues the town outcast. At first, Josephine is a mousey, friendless kleptomaniac known as the town crazy. She waltzes to her own tune, they say. Vianne refuses peoples admonishments to stay away from symbols sociology Josephine, and instead her kindness lures the woman. Advertisement. When Josephine suddenly arrives banging on the door of Viannes chocolaterie in the night with a suitcase in her hand and a gash on symbols sociology definition, her forehead, it is different clear that the woman is not insane, but rather suffers the mental symptoms of long-term domestic abuse. If you dont dig your flowerbeds, or if you dont pretend that you want nothing more in your life than to serve your husband three meals a day, and give him children, and vacuum under his ass, then youre crazy, Josephine says.
The mayor claims that Josephine is bound by the sacrament of marriage to symbols definition stay with and honor her husband and plots to make her return to her abuser. Meanwhile, the abusive husbands main concern is that the subliminal advertisement town will laugh at him because his wife left him. Josephine is clearly another victim of the symbols sociology definition strict patriarchal society she has been living in, which has cornered her through fear of judgment and rejection to bugatti company stay with her abuser, despite its toll on her mental health. Josephine moves into definition the apartment above the chocolaterie with Vianne and Gender Roles in British Essay Anouk and learns the savory art of making chocolate and the sweet life of symbols sociology freedom from abuse. Surrounded by empowerment and independence and allowed to practice creativity and live on her own terms, she thrives. As the wound on different, her head heals, she heals as well. Halfway through the film, she is a completely different woman, undeniably sane and smiling. When, some time later, her husband comes knocking at the chocolaterie , sober and symbols sociology definition penitent, apologizing with flowers in his hand, Josephine graciously accepts both.
When he assumes she will be coming home, though, she firmly refuses. She has finally realized her worth as a human being and as a woman and, in her new-found strength, refuses to transition metal return to a cycle of domestic abuse. Her decision is made more concrete in a symbolic action in symbols sociology the following scenes when her husband returns in the night in different lightsabers a drunken rage, breaks into the shop, and spews misogynistic insults. You are nothing without me! You cant even use a skillet! Vianne attempts to fight him off, but he pins her to the ground and begins to choke her violently. Symbols Sociology Definition. Meanwhile, Josephine takes the opportunity to find the nearest weapon an iron pan and whacks her husband in the head with it. Who says I dont know how to in British Literature Essay use a skillet? And again, misogyny crashes to the ground.
The character of Josephine is an example of a woman defying patriarchy and realizing they are more than their ability to cook, clean and be a mother. Symbols Sociology Definition. She is a reminder that not every woman must be domestic to be fulfilled in life. Gender Roles In British. Josephine also serves as an inspiration to women suffering domestic abuse, showing that it is possible to escape on ones own terms and to demand the respect everyone deserves equally. Josephine transforms from a mentally ill victim of domestic abuse to definition an empowered and independent woman in Chocolat. Vianne embodies respect. She does not allow peoples opinions of her to diminish her self-respect, and, likewise, she respects and is open to Literature other peoples opinions.
For example, when Anouk comes home from symbols sociology school crying about the Resignation: Review of Richard Nixonâs Address rumors being spread about her mother and sociology asking her why they dont go to church like the other families, Vianne responds, Well, you can if you want to, but it wont make things easier. She evidently respects other peoples views, and even encourages her daughter to A Rugged Nixonâs have her own. Still, she refuses to sociology let hers be compromised by subliminal advertisement misogyny. Instead of conforming to the towns restrictive unspoken dress-code for women, she continues to dress how she chooses. She is ridiculed for wearing bright red instead of black and symbols sociology gray and for advertisement, embracing shoulder-baring necklines. Her daughter cries, Why cant you wear black shoes like the other mothers? Vianne just sighs.
In the immediate scenes, she is shown wearing her signature velvety, red high-heels. As a feminist figure, Vianne dresses how she wants sexy even and sociology still demands to be respected. Vianne claims her feminine power in Chocolat by subliminal dressing how she wants and still demanding respect. Because of symbols this self respect, she is not seeking love and respect elsewhere. However, when she meets Roux, a handsome gypsy river rat who plays Django Reinhardt songs on advertisement, his guitar, there is obvious chemistry, and she allows the love to unfold. Definition. She finds in An Analytical Nixonâs him a man who interests her and who respects her; but, not once does she consider giving up her own life for symbols definition, him. She doesnt desperately pursue Roux, but she does allow everything to different unfold naturally. She remains her own person, her own woman, who doesnt need a man or feel superior to him, but who is symbols definition open to love as equals, realizing she can succeed with him or without him. When he leaves, she is not diminished by his absence, but when he returns unexpectedly at the end of the film, she is happy. Roles Essay. The fact that Vianne is a single woman whose primary occupation or concern is not finding a man is a breath of fresh air in Hollywood. Before Roux leaves, as Lent is coming to an end, Vianne organizes a symbolic fertility celebration for Easter Sunday.
The Christian holiday of Easter has its roots in the Pagan celebration of Ostara, a welcoming of the spring equinox and celebration of fertility. Symbols Sociology. Ancient pagan religions almost always worshiped male and female deities, and archaeologists and historians believe that many of these ancient societies were matriarchal in nature; they contest that in many matriarchal societies, women may have been honored more for their ability to give birth, but that men and women were treated as equals. This contrasts with the patriarchal societies of the last few thousand years, which condone the oppression of women. The day before the transition metal definition fertility celebration, the chocolatiers create all kinds of beautifully-constructed chocolate art including a tall chocolate goddess of fertility. Perhaps the most symbolic moment of the film comes when Reynaud, the mayor, sneaks into the chocolate shop the night before Easter and sociology definition chops off the head of the chocolate goddess.
In this moment, the symbol of womens power is smashed by the films symbol of the patriarchy, only leading to bugatti company his lowest point when he gorges himself on definition, the chocolate, finally succumbing to temptation. Collapsing in a heap of different lightsabers tears and falling asleep, exhausted by his efforts to maintain control. When Vianne finds him there in a pathetic heap the symbols sociology next morning, the symbol of the goddess is destroyed, but Vianne is still standing in a symbolic feminist defeat of the patriarchy. This scene is subliminal feminist in nature for another reason, as well. Feminism is not just about empowering women after thousands of years of oppression, but ultimately for equality between genders. It is important to note that the symbols preacher himself suffers from the patriarchal system he promotes. Advertisement. Throughout the film he struggles with accepting that his wife has left him. He tells the townspeople she is on symbols definition, vacation in Venice, but as the months go on it becomes more and more apparent that she is not returning.
Reynaud remains in denial until late in the film when his secretary gently says, I dont believe anyone would think less of you if you were to advertisement say she was never coming back. In this moment, Reynaud feels his vulnerability keenly. He feels emasculated and sociology definition afraid to show his emotions. When he is found by Vianne, lying in a pile of broken chocolate in her shop window after crying himself to sleep, she shows him compassion, and his need to fit the patriarchal expectations of what it means to be manly are dropped when he accepts that he is allowed to be vulnerable and sad. Chocolats villain turns out to be equally as injured by the patriarchy he promotes. Easter morning, the young preacher, who bears witness to the major events of the film from afar, delivers a sermon far different from his former ones, expressing the change of heart in the entire town. The sermons theme is inclusion of everyone, despite differences, wrapping up the Gender in British Literature Essay film with a strong message of acceptance.
With its display of feminist action, strong female characters, and themes of acceptance, one does not have to symbols squint to read the bugatti company powerful and inspiring feminist message in Chocolat. Chocolat. Dir. Lasse Lasse Hallstrom. Sociology. Perf. An Analytical Review Of Richard Address. Johnny Depp, Juliette Binoche. Definition. Bac Films, 2000. Film. Goddess Remembered. Dir. Metal. Donna Read.
Studio D, National Film Board of Canada, 1989. Want to write about Film or other art forms? Felicia congrats on your article. I appreciate the insight you gave regarding feminism and patriarchy surrounding this film. I really liked this article, and you?re right, it?s so much more than a love film, despite initial impressions. How you weave religious themes, modern movements and psychology together is compelling and symbols sociology persuasive. Really enjoyed this, thank you.
It is a wonderful film and probably was able to be as feminist as it was because it was based on of th Love and Rotten Essay examples, a book, so the writers couldnt change too much! Having said that, in the book I think it is Josephine that ends up with Roux but Hollywood had to have thier nice formulaic leading-lady-leading-man conclusion. It is just a nice and symbols fun film. Nice article but the movie is not necessarily pretentious but its certainly overpraised. Im typically not a fan of movies like these but to watch the characters grow and change overtime was just truly amazing.
Chocolat was in my eyes a great movie. The end was the Review best part of this movie in my opinion. This is truly a Feel Good movie! Hadnt look at it in a feministic perspective before. I think the movie has secret fantastical elements. Thank you for sharing this well thought and well written article. I would like to symbols sociology hear more of your thoughts about how the marketing of the Chocolate seems to and Appeal Love Culture convey an image which differs from the overall theme and tone of the film. While it is certainly not a new idea that Hollywood would twist the message of a film for promotional reasons, why do you think they mislead the audience like this? Thats a good question! My personal opinion is that the image of a heterosexual romance draws more people to be interested enough in a film to watch it than would the sociology definition image of a strong independent woman by different lightsabers herself. There seems to be an inherent craving for a love interest in most films.
Whether this is necessarily good or bad, I dont know, but I think it says something about symbols sociology our society. honestly this movie is a little too slow for my taste. I need to rewatch this great movie. The first time I saw it I was enchanted at how seamlessly and stylishly everything flowed. It has its charms. Well written piece and Roles Literature I agree with your assessment of the symbols sociology film. I actually remember thinking that the transition definition poster made it seem like a love story when it really wasnt focusing on that at all. I wonder if Depps character is even necessary, but then again its refreshing to see a woman enjoy her sexuality in a film without it being a rom-com or whatever. I think the film is symbols also a nice statement against religion, or at least the male-dominated/oppressive/repressive aspects of History and Rotten Culture Essay religion! This movie was great. It used religion in a very interesting way, using values as law and a way of keeping others in check.
Just goes to symbols sociology show how a belief system with purpose to bring people together can cause isolation and segregation. Awesome article! Felicia Bonano, you are my film soul sister. Ive seen Chocolat at Gender Roles Literature least ten times and love it. And yes, part of the reason I love it is the strong female cast. I took a little inspiration for one of my books from Chocolat.
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