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Between Acceptance and Refusal - Soldiers#039; Attitudes Towards War. Soldiers’ attitudes towards the Great War are a controversial issue, as they prove difficult to assess and raise complex methodological questions. They evolved during the course of the conflict, from a broad acceptance of schon, a defensive war in the summer of 1914, to in "Betrayal", war-weariness as early as winter 1914, to various and sometimes spectacular forms of refusal from reflective, 1917 onwards, although obedience and compliance remained the norm. Of Antitrust? Acceptance, endurance and refusal can further be explained by taking into model account variables such as military context, individual combatants’ political ideas, their social backgrounds and their national loyalties and affiliations. Informative Speech:? The purpose of this article is to schon reflective model, examine and understand the complexity of soldiers’ attitudes towards the war, and their evolution from apparent acceptance to tenacious endurance and, in some cases, to open refusal.
This topic has sparked many interrogations, and a degree of controversy, as the respective roles of patriotism and coercion in soldiers’ obedience are debated by researchers. In the words of a prominent historian, in 1914-1918, why was it not a natural reaction to Speech:, the terror of battle for a man to drop his gun and turn around and go home? [. Reflective Model? ] And is Kikkoman, it the schon reflective practice model, case that they consented to carnage?  This interrogation reflects a conceptual and methodological difficulty. Investigation Of Antitrust? Acceptance and schon refusal of the war are not easily characterized, and even less easily retrieved or reconstructed from source materials. It could be argued that the scholarly debate on soldiers’ attitudes towards war is, to Chocolate, some extent, a disagreement over definitions: should acceptance be construed as meaning adhesion or consent? Does the term point to a favorable view of the war, to a conscious recognition of schon reflective model, its legitimacy, to Salesman and A Named Essay, a plain admittance of schon reflective, its inevitability, or to the mere compliance to military duty? As for refusal, should it imply a condemnation of Informative Chocolate, war in general, a politically grounded criticism of the current conflict, a tendency to minimize one’s exposure to practice model, its violence, or a deliberate effort to seek its end via protest or collective action? Furthermore, methodological difficulties in interpreting primary sources (some letters or diaries will show evidence of acceptance of the war yet their author may well desert, conversely, some soldiers who write of their refusal or disapproval of the conflict can nonetheless show great resolve and a willingness to fight) indicate that the question of soldiers’ attitudes towards war needs to be framed carefully, to Unfaithfulness,, be put in context, always taking into account the reflective practice, variety of military situations and of belligerent nations. Within all armies and societies in 1914-1918, acceptance was expected and Kikkoman celebrated, whereas refusal was punished.
This is not only model true in military terms, as the insistence on duty, on holding on ( tenir, durchhalten ) was grounded in a much wider social framework, that of modern states with (for most of them) compulsory schooling and military service, where an insistence on patriotism or dynastic loyalty was instilled by state institutions as well as ever-growing and powerful media. Informative Chocolate? These states governed hierarchical societies in which obedience, deference and compliance were widely upheld social norms even before the war. It is thus possible to inquire soldiers’ acceptance and refusal, bearing in mind the ubiquity of the former and the difficulty of the latter, and the complex ways in which personal attitudes of combatants were shaped by individual and group identities, social pressures (within the army, from the schon reflective, rear) and interactions (with their peers, superiors, families and enemies) in a changing context. In order to do so, I will first try to sketch the rough evolution of these attitudes from Kikkoman, 1914 to 1918, from the initial favorable response to schon, the war to the growing discontent culminating in mutiny and revolution. Throughout this period, we will try to understand why compliance and in Death Salesman and A Streetcar tenacity were the most common attitudes for soldiers during the war, with instances of overt refusal, that, although scarce, could have dire consequences.
I will then examine four specific factors which proved decisive in explaining soldiers’ acceptance or refusal of the war: military configuration, political or ideological affiliation, rank and reflective model class, and national integration. Contrary to many expectations, the outbreak of a major war in 1914 triggered very little refusal. Kikkoman? The apparent consent to the war on schon reflective model its inception must be explained as it provides the background for an understanding of the Speech:, later dynamics of acceptance, endurance and refusal. Reflective Practice? In all belligerent states, mobilization was highly successful,  combining extremely low desertion or draft-dodging rates and high levels of volunteering. In France, only 1.22 percent of Kikkoman, men did not show up for mobilization.  This number, already much lower than pre-war estimates, must be further deflated: in fact, most of the men classified as deserters in 1914 were actually living abroad and could not therefore be incorporated in good time. Schon?  On the other hand, where compulsory conscription left out high percentages of the male population (as in Germany) or was altogether absent (as in Britain and its Dominions), vast numbers of men volunteered for Sex Education Program Implementation Essay active service. Schon Reflective Model?  This was echoed by equally strong enlistments in Britain’s remote Dominions.  Furthermore, contrary to many pre-war fears, industrial workers did not sabotage the war effort, nor did nationalist militants in Ireland, Bohemia or Poland. Trains ran smoothly according to established timetables, carrying millions of uniformed men to the borders. What anti-war rallies could be held did not disrupt mobilization in on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty any serious way. With the exception of reflective practice model, severe riots in Russia,  pre-war fears proved completely unfounded.
But this consensus must not be confused with a general war-enthusiasm, an idea that Europeans marched gallantly and joyfully into the conflict has been decisively dispelled by several thorough studies of public opinion.  Indeed, there were passionate and Speech: Chocolate positive responses to the war, especially among professional soldiers, artists and intellectuals; in the public space this translated in schon model the patriotic crowds in Berlin, Paris, Vienna, St. Petersburg or Budapest, seemingly welcoming the outbreak of war. Research has shown that these loud urban groups, comprising many students, were not representative of larger societies. Yet their role must not be underestimated: what enthusiasm there was in 1914 was highly visible and on Infidelity, in "Betrayal" valorized, and contributed to the more general attitude of wary resignation and compliance, ensuring, furthermore, that refusal could not be expressed. With the entry into war, opposition to schon reflective, the conflict ceased to be a legitimate political opinion, and causes became a treasonous stance that could not be publicly held, as arrests or physical harm could ensue.  On an individual level, on the continent, men were ordered to join their units leaving them without a choice to refuse or accept the war: As the law orders, one must obey wrote a young French conscript of his mobilization.  Even the great influx of volunteers in Britain and the dominions cannot be entirely separated from economic and social pressures: it corresponded to a steep rise in unemployment especially in the building sector, and to schon reflective model, a collective insistence on joining the ranks, expressed by peers, by Speech: Chocolate hierarchical superiors (headmasters, company directors) as well as by the numerous women who started handing out white feathers to men perceived to schon practice, be unwilling to volunteer, in a general assault on inappropriately passive behavior.  Hence, a sober assessment of attitudes at the outbreak of war - technically, before most men were turned into soldiers - shows that the conflict was greeted with surprise and sadness, especially in rural communities where the gathering of the harvest was threatened by the sudden departure of men as well as the requisition of horses.  For the great majority of men, the war was equated with separation from their kin, economic uncertainty for themselves and their families in their absence, and with the perspective of hardship and death. Kikkoman? These feelings were often mitigated, however, by the short-war illusion, for some by excitement due to schon reflective, the prospect of new horizons and risky endeavors, and, for all, by Kikkoman a sense of reflective, inevitability reinforced by defensive patriotism. This constitutes a key component of the initial response to the war, as political leaders and newspapers were careful to frame their state’s actions in the diplomatic crisis as defensive, and the measures taken (mobilization, declarations of war) as necessary. This resulted in a shared belief, within belligerent societies, that the war was fought for defensive reasons, and was the of Antitrust, basis of widespread political truces ( Union sacree , Burgfrieden ) and displays of national unity and unanimity, while the Socialist International proved divided and powerless.
Finally, at first, a defensive war’s legitimacy could not be openly challenged, resulting in a quasi-absence of public debate on war aims and war prosecution. Practice? In the Masculine Bravado Salesman Streetcar Named Desire Essay, following weeks, this idea was reinforced in reflective practice model the Entente by atrocity stories regarding the Investigation, conduct of model, German troops in Belgium and in France, and in the Central Powers by the targeting of civilians resulting from the naval blockade.  These perceptions and representations did not exist in the abstract, but were mediated, in a very direct manner, by Speech: Chocolate the social interactions of summer 1914, when men met in schon reflective model public places and village squares often under the supervision of state authorities (mayors, policemen, army officers and Chocolate recruiters) and community leaders (priests, parsons, elders, school teachers). They had to show courage and resolve in front of an expectant and anguished civilian population, thereby embodying expected gendered roles.  They were regrouped in reflective barracks or train stations  where their departure to the front was often ritualized through patriotic songs and proclamations - thus contributing to of Antitrust Law Essay, the enduring image of naive war-enthusiasm. The reactions towards the war in the summer of 1914 reveal the reflective practice model, efficiency of peacetime socialization (through compulsory schooling and military service on the continent), and the strength of the national or dynastic loyalties that had been constructed in the previous decades. Kikkoman? Even if the conflict as such was not necessarily accepted the fact that states or sovereigns could call to schon reflective practice model, arms millions of men in a defensive war was everywhere seen as a distressing but normal situation. If the legitimacy of the war was not directly challenged by the vast majority of frontline soldiers until 1917, from late 1914 onwards their will to fight started to erode, and they developed coping and exit strategies. Kikkoman? Various forms of practice, refusal emerged in the context of what was becoming a war of attrition. However, all armies ensured that compliance remained the Essay, norm, in part through disciplinary measures.
From late 1914 onwards: A growing War-Weariness ^ One must first take into account, after the first few weeks of reflective, fighting and the enormous casualties they entailed, the Bravado of a Named Essay, lack of ideological commitment for most frontline soldiers, many of whom, without ceasing to wish for their nation or state’s victory, expressed a longing for schon reflective home and for an end to Bravado in Death of a and A, the conflict. There are several converging indicators of this prevalent war-weariness, which started to grow during the winter of 1914-1915. In the schon practice model, Austro-Hungarian army, commanders blamed military setbacks on their troops’ lack of fighting spirit, and postal censorship offices had to be set up because of the despondent tone of Informative Speech: Chocolate, soldiers’ correspondence,  also visible in the German army.  As early as 2 January 1915, a sergeant in the 240 th French Infantry regiment wrote of the egoism of soldiers under his orders, who longed for an end to the war.  Such remarks by practice model officers and of a and A Streetcar Desire authority figures abound in all armies once the war settled in a pattern of attrition, as the men in reflective model their troops realized that the ordeal of Kikkoman, war was to be much costlier and longer than anyone had expected. The general trend of practice model, a long-term, inexorable decline in soldiers’ willingness to go on Kikkoman with the war  was frequently mitigated by short-term hopes for a successful offensive, as in the French army before the September 1915 attack.  But many indicators show growing difficulties in schon reflective model military recruitment after the success of mobilization in 1914. British volunteering slowed and then stalled after 1914, the steep drop in enlistments by mid-1915 opening a political debate that would result in Sex Education Program in Schools Essay the progressive introduction of reflective model, conscription starting in January 1916.  In Austria-Hungary, the draft of spring 1915 provoked “murmurings of discontent” and localized protest. Kikkoman?  These were more widespread in reflective model Russia in the fall of 1915, as new levies of men caused difficulties and riots, sometimes leading to political demonstrations.  In France as well as Germany, from late 1915 onwards, soldiers urged their relatives to refuse subscriptions to war loans in Investigation Law Essay order for schon practice model the conflict to end sooner.  For the main part, however, the prevalent war-weariness of 1914-1916 did not lead to open protest, refusal or revolt.
In all belligerent countries, the great majority of soldiers longed for the end yet hoped for victory and admitted the defensive nature of the war. Obedience, Compliance and Discipline in a War of and A Named Desire, Attrition ^ Many factors enabled these soldiers to hold on in the dire conditions of industrialized warfare, as evidenced by a large and growing body of reflective model, historical research. This plurality of Bravado in Death Salesman Streetcar Desire Essay, factors must be stressed, as the historiographical debates on soldiers’ attitudes towards the war are often narrowly expressed as a binary interpretive choice, that of coercion versus consent.  In reality, while both of these notions can have some validity, they need to reflective model, be supplemented with a series of other social factors in Essay Unfaithfulness, and Modesty order to schon model, illuminate obedience, compliance and tenacity. It should first be noted that once men became soldiers, whatever their initial thoughts or beliefs may have been, obedience ceased largely to be a conscious choice and instead became a default option.  Turned from what causes, civilians into combatants, their initial assent to the war became irrelevant as they were placed in the framework of armies insistent on rules and discipline, an insistence embodied by hierarchical superiors whose presence was a decisive factor for military cohesion. Practice? Many scholars have pointed to officer-men relations as a key component of soldiers’ endurance, through paternalistic forms of authority.  Of special importance were the officers in close contact with soldiers, junior and non-commissioned officers, who could exert their authority in multifold manner: by setting examples of courage and tenacity in combat (occasionally through stern displays of Kikkoman, firmness including, in rare cases, summary executions)  , by proving attentive to soldiers’ material conditions (food, comfort, drink, rest), by delivering inspiring, understanding or frightening speeches according to the military context, and by being receptive to a degree of consultation and schon reflective practice bargaining  and Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools Essay the airing of reflective model, grievances often expressed through grousing.  This illustrates a more general pattern that enabled combatants to endure the war: they tried to maintain peacetime habits and values so as to maintain or re-create a measure of normalcy. On the western front, trench art and newspapers, football matches and on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty theatrical shows, drawing and writing were fundamental elements that enabled soldiers to sustain to some extent their pre-war identities. Schon?  Letter-writing, in particular, had a huge importance, as it ensured the persistence of social bonds of kinship and what causes deforestation friendship.  These bonds were also developed in the context of military units: on a large scale through esprit de corps and regimental traditions, often grounded in local, communal or professional identities (so-called pals’ battalions in schon reflective Britain);  on Speech: Chocolate a smaller scale in the primary groups of a dozen or so combatants, small groups of men sharing dangers, hardships, but also food, drink and sleep, creating for each soldier a strong sense of reflective practice model, duty for one’s comrades and the necessity of resolve and Kikkoman masculine courage. Practice Model?  Again, this showed the transfer, in the front lines, of previous civilian values of Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal", stoicism and compliance through hard work, as many soldiers developed, rather than an overt and abstract patriotic or dynastic commitment, a kind of tangible professional consciousness towards their war duty.  On an individual level, soldiers developed many psychological coping strategies, among which forced gaiety and schon practice model derision, fatalism, self-deception and what causes deforestation religious or superstitious practices were especially important.  These collective and individual efforts in order to adapt and model endure the causes deforestation, war were overseen by the military. Armies, as institutions, showed great concern for men’s willingness to fight, and tried to manage it in two complementary manners. There were positive incentives, as armies learned to control time and space in order to schon reflective practice model, avoid keeping troops in the front lines for too long, grudgingly granting leave and rest policies after the first year of Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal", war, giving soldiers a manageable horizon of expectations.  Courage, patriotism, and willingness to fight were also positively sanctioned through medals, decorations and distinctions of great symbolic importance.  But there was also a negative, coercive aspect to the upholding of schon reflective model, cohesion and obedience. If coercion never was the sole factor of soldiers’ endurance, it nonetheless existed in conspicuous forms, as all armies retained the Program in Schools, capacity to inflict brutal, degrading, and often highly visible punishments upon enlisted personnel.  These have generated a huge amount of scholarship, focusing especially on the death penalty and practice military executions.
All states had military tribunals and court-martials, and in Death Salesman all armies (except for Australia) executed soldiers found guilty (among other offences) of reflective practice, disobedience or cowardice (with many judicial nuances according to the different legal systems): between 1914 and 1918, eighteen soldiers were shot in the Belgian army, thirty-five in Chocolate the American Expeditionary corps, at schon reflective model least forty-eight in the German army, 346 for Britain and Program Implementation in Schools its Dominions, around 670 for France, at schon reflective practice model least 750 for Italy, to which one must add dozens of Kikkoman, executions on the spot by officers, without trial (at least 300 for Italy). Schon Reflective Model?  One of the on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal", functions of these executions was generally to make an example, and they were thus highly ritualized and publicized, with troops having to stand to schon, attention during executions for instance. But the Speech:, death penalty was one extreme of a judicial and disciplinary continuum intended to maintain obedience and cohesion. Detention, alcohol and tobacco severances, bodily punishment (the infamous Field Punishment n°1 in the British armies, consisting of tying men to a wheel or post for a few hours), confinement to barracks, extra work or drill, extended front-line duty, were some of the instruments of military discipline.  From late 1914 to 1917, there existed no acceptable or realistic discourse with which to express refusal of the conflict. The war’s legitimacy could not be challenged, even less so as the gigantic losses of the first months and years definitively validated complete victory as a undisputable war aim for all warring states. Furthermore, the valorization of combatants and the despise for shirkers was so strong in all countries that attitudes of practice, refusal, doubt or avoidance of the war effort, especially among military-age men, were socially disqualified.  Within this framework, all the preceding factors help one understand how, even if the Bravado in Death Streetcar Essay, war was not accepted, it could be endured.
These symbolic and material limits also explain why instances of refusal in the first years of the war were generally individual, covert and reflective apolitical. Covert forms of refusal: Legal and Illegal Exit Strategies ^ In 1915 and 1916, for those soldiers who either opposed the war or sought to Investigation of Antitrust, escape its violence, refusal was not translated into protest or political discourse but rather in limited exit strategies. Once believed to have been isolated phenomena, limited to practice, the peculiar atmosphere of Christmas 1914, truces between front-line soldiers are now known to have been ubiquitous, throughout the war, despite commanding officers’ efforts to suppress them.  Even though any attempt at quantification must fail, sufficient evidence from soldiers’ letters and from official reports shows that, as early as October 1914, a live and Investigation of Antitrust let live system (Tony Ashworth) could be set up, through discussions, ritualized aggression and even encounters in no man’s land.  It does not ensue that soldiers participating in those truces refused the war in a deep, ideological sense: rather that, when presented with an opportunity to reduce its violence and schon practice model minimize their own exposure, they were willing to temporarily withdraw from fighting when not in the midst of major military operations.  Even if officers could in some cases close their eyes, fraternizations remained illegal and all armies made efforts to Kikkoman, suppress them. Other exit strategies could be found within the limits of military discipline. Armies themselves provided some opportunities for soldiers seeking to avoid combat or minimize their exposure to life and death in the front lines: as the reflective practice model, war went on, new fronts were opened and the technical and logistical components of the Essay and Modesty in "Betrayal", military grew. This enabled many men to request a change of military affectation, or to volunteer for specific units in a hope to avoid the high casualty rates of infantry combat.
In France, younger recruits voluntarily enlisted in order to steer clear from the trenches: in schon practice model 1918, only Masculine Streetcar 4 percent of the men enlisted for infantry units, against 48 for the Navy and 32 percent for the artillery. Schon Reflective Practice?  Other temporary exits could present themselves in the form of learning periods, exceptional leave or transfers in Informative Speech: Chocolate the factories for some soldiers whose pre-war professions could lead them to temporary or permanent posts as, for instance, telephone operators, translators, or cartographers.  Sick or hospital leave could also be seen as in a positive manner, all the more so as a relatively light wound (short of maiming and disfigurement) was both a visible proof of courage and a sure way out of the front lines. This led some soldiers to try various degrees of simulation, from malingering and attempting to convince doctors one was ill, to seeking venereal disease and to actual self-inflicted wounds, “an individual form of revolt, minimal and reflective practice model apolitical.”  This could take many forms, from using infected bandages to shooting oneself in the hand or foot.  Suspicious wounds would draw the in "Betrayal", attention of doctors and practice officers liable to prosecute (sometimes wrongly) combatants.  This forms the basis for admittedly imperfect attempts at quantification. Prosecution statistics indicate that self-mutilation was never widespread without being negligible: 3,478 British soldiers were tried before October 1918 for self-inflicted wounds, and 10,035 were found guilty in Italy.  Even in these relatively limited numbers this practice shows the astonishing amount of pain some soldiers were ready to inflict on themselves in order to refuse the war. Finally, among exit strategies, desertion played an important role. Soldiers’ refusal of the war could result in the minimal and uncomplicated acts of leaving the front, or not returning to their units after a period of leave. However, some crucial distinctions must be made in order to make sense of Kikkoman, this phenomenon. In reality, desertion could encompass five very different kinds of actions, highly unequal in their ease and reflective practice model significance.
The most common type consisted of soldiers reporting to their units with a significant delay. In this sense, the majority of deserters never intended to escape the in Death of a Streetcar Desire, war altogether, but merely tried to defer their return. According to reflective model, Leonard Smith, this was partly due to Investigation of Antitrust, the disciplinary dilemma of military justices that could not imprison and even less sentence to death large numbers of combatants for what came to schon reflective practice, be seen as minor offences, away from the Investigation, front, in the context of a widening dearth of men.  A second, less common attitude, was that of deserters whose defection was intended as permanent, and sought to model, hide in the rear, among relatives (when fighting took place in their own country, as was the Program in Schools, case for Frenchmen, Italians, and for some Russians or Poles), trying to avoid police and gendarmerie or carabinieri forces on the lookout for men of military age. Reflective Model?  This practice was much more difficult as it flew in the face of accepted social norms and gendered roles, and such deserters were far less numerous. Speech: Chocolate? A third kind of desertion, marking a steeper form of refusal of the schon reflective model, war, consisted of flight towards neutral countries (Germans towards Denmark or The Netherlands, Frenchmen towards Spain, Switzerland being a central destination). Bravado Salesman?  It was an extreme and rare undertaking, as it meant almost certain judicial sentencing ( in absentia ) and renouncing to schon reflective, one’s entire social ties and past. Finally, the Informative Chocolate, most severely condemned and rarest sort of desertions involved the definitive choice  of defecting to the enemy, in two different ways: as a deliberate, planned, attempt to practice model, cross the Speech: Chocolate, lines, generally at night or during a patrol, or in model the midst of combat, in the form of on Infidelity, and Modesty, a hasty surrender, sometimes visible in large offensives. In this fashion, one can interpret the huge number of reflective practice model, captives resulting from certain operations as partial signs of growing reluctance to Informative Speech:, fight: 1 million Russian soldiers were taken prisoner during the 1915 retreat, and 380,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers were taken captive after the Russian Brusilov offensive of June 1916.  The meaning of such acts will be further studied below in relation to certain national minorities. At this stage, two elements can be pointed out.
Desertion as a whole was quite rare for most countries, with some remarkable exceptions (the Ottoman Empire, which will be taken into account). For Britain, Germany and France, deserters - with all the caveats linked to judicial statistics that are difficult to interpret - appear never to have numbered more than 0.5 percent of men in uniform before 1918.  This, however, does not take into account the immeasurable phenomenon of voluntary surrender, which seems to have been more frequent on the eastern front. But in all armies, there was an unmistakable upward trend between 1914 and 1917, evidenced by existing statistics at divisional, regional or national levels: (June 1915-May 1916) (June 1916-May 1917) (June 1917-May 1918) (June 1918-Oct. 1918) Table 1: Desertion totals and desertion rates in select units and reflective practice armies  The general rise in Informative Chocolate desertions from 1914 to 1917 indicates a shift in the attitudes towards war that must be studied and explained. Refusal, Revolution, Remobilization?
1917-1918 ^ Military disintegration and unwillingness to fight, mixed, in the later stages of the war, with growing vocal, ideological and politicized opposition to the very nature and existence of the conflict. Reflective Practice? From Consensus to Discontent: A changed Context ^ The year 1916 can be considered as a turning point regarding soldiers’ attitudes towards the war, with what one scholar has called a massive worsening of the mood,  especially after the huge battles fought at Verdun and on the Somme on the western front, and the costly Brusilov offensive on the eastern front. At the Kikkoman, end of 1916, military failures, social unrest and schon reflective practice model political turmoil would combine to create a new background in which soldiers’ endurance and compliance became more uncertain. The first element behind this shift is the lengthening of the war. Even if many soldiers still longed for a rapid end to the conflict, by early 1916 the short-war illusion had been proven wrong, and by the end of Kikkoman, 1916, after gigantic battles that, despite appalling casualties, failed to even minimally alter the schon, military stalemate on the western, eastern and Italian fronts, a new level of war-weariness was reached in all belligerent armies. More importantly perhaps, these military disappointments led to Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools Essay, a hitherto unseen questioning of the war: in reflective model each country, and on Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, an international scale, war aims and reflective practice peace perspectives came to be discussed on Kikkoman unprecedented levels, starting with the German peace proposals of December 1916 followed by Wilson’s diplomatic efforts. Internal politics became more uncertain as well: in Austria-Hungary, the practice, death of Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Kikkoman, Austria (1830-1916) weakened the model, already strained national fabric (November 1916); the Austrian Reichsrat and Russian Duma convened, for the first time, in late 1916, becoming a platform for voicing criticism.
In Britain, a political crisis led to of Antitrust Law Essay, the fall of reflective, Herbert Henry Asquith’s (1852-1928) government, as one of his ministers, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marquess of Lansdowne (1845-1927), openly questioned the war in his Memorandum written on 13 November 1916. These events, still uncertain and scattered, started to question the - until then - unassailable fact of the war’s continuation until a victorious ending. This did not pass unnoticed by frontline soldiers, as correspondence, newspapers and leave could inform them of the changing political landscape. Pacifism - in its widest possible sense - therefore ceased to be entirely confined to the remote world of Informative Speech:, isolated urban working-class militants. Soldiers’ desire for an end to the war and political discourse bent on schon hastening it, slowly started to converge. Informative Chocolate? In France, the pacifist deputy Pierre Brizon (1878-1923) received over 150 letters from the front, applauding him in his refusal of the reflective, war. Implementation In Schools?  In Russia, the chief of the Petrograd postal censorship commission wrote, in November 1916: It is impossible not to notice in the letters both to schon, and from the army the increasingly sharp manifestations of Masculine Bravado Salesman and A Named Desire Essay, dissatisfaction with the internal political situation in connection with the general disorganization of the home front and schon reflective practice the ever increasing prices of what causes, objects of prime necessity.  At the schon reflective, end of on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty in "Betrayal", 1916, two powerful trends intersected, both linked to the lengthening of the war: the cumulative strain that wore down men and units, their willingness to go on and their military cohesion on the one hand; the rise of dissent and socio-political strife that would provide the framework and vocabulary hitherto lacking in order to refuse the war, on the other. Between Mutiny and Revolution in 1917 ^ In 1917 initial acceptance and tenacious compliance gave way, in almost all armies, to instances of collective protest, in the wake of the reflective model, February revolution in Russia. These protests and mutinies were dissimilar in shape, extent and what causes consequences. Instances of open revolt or mutiny had been exceedingly rare before 1917. Some battalions had refused to leave the trenches for attacks, in 1915 and 1916, at Verdun for example, yet without voicing protests, political of pacifist demands.  These occurrences of schon reflective, refusal to fight - without refusing the war - grew more frequent in the Russian army during the fall and winter of 1916, as it experienced a rash of mutinies, like that of the Sex Education, 20 th Siberian Rifle Division in Latvia on 23 December 1916. Reflective Model?  The Russian army’s war-weariness coalesced with civilian demands for bread and peace during the demonstrations of February 1917 (March, in the western Gregorian calendar used here), leading to the first Russian revolution. What?  This event was to have massive consequences for the Russian army and for all belligerents.
In Russia, soldiers’ committees were established, as the Petrograd Soviet issued its order n°1 effectively dissolving traditional discipline and officers’ authority (14 March 1917). While the Provisional Government intended to continue the schon, war, this position was partially challenged by the Soviet’s appeal to on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness,, the people of the world for a peace without annexations or indemnities (27 March 1917), still justifying a defensive war in order to protect the revolution. This translated in soldiers’ attitudes toward the war: while desertions remained limited, there was a massive spread of schon reflective practice model, fraternization, and Informative Speech: Chocolate a renewed hope for an end to the conflict, evidenced in the twenty instances of mutiny between March and May 1917. Model? The overthrow of discipline and yearning for peace in the Russian army provided the Kikkoman, background for unrest and schon reflective practice protest among other armies in the spring and summer of 1917, while new waves of strikes affected France, Britain, Germany and Italy, and with the perspective of a third socialist pacifist conference (after Zimmerwald in 1915 and Kienthal in 1916) to be held in June 1917 in Stockholm. Bravado Of A Salesman Streetcar Named Desire?  In Italy, some units went into open refusal of combat: on 21 March 1917, near Gorizia, the 38 th regiment of the schon model, Ravenna brigade was ordered back to the trenches despite dreadful losses and insufficient leave in the previous months: soldiers erupted into violent protest, refusing to Bravado of a Salesman and A Named Desire Essay, advance and discharging their weapons in model the air. Similar incidents occurred in May 1917, with the most serious instance of Informative Speech:, refusal in schon practice the Italian army taking place on the night of Essay on Infidelity, and Modesty in "Betrayal", 15-16 July 1917, when the reflective, Catanzaro brigade went into armed revolt in Friuli leaving between twelve and thirty dead. Some soldiers shouted pacifist slogans (Long live anarchy, we want peace, long live Russia, down with the Kikkoman, war), prompting the schon practice model, authorities to fear a non-existent socialist conspiracy, and to a harsh repression.  In May to June 1917, the French army was confronted with a wave of mutinies in more than 110 units, comprising two-thirds of infantry divisions. Soldiers behind the lines refused their officers’ orders to advance to the trenches, often staging protests and demonstrations with the use of red flags and the singing of The International . This wave of protest spread in the wake of the failed Chemin des Dames offensive (16 April 1917) and peaked in on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal" the early days of reflective practice, June 1917.
Soldiers’ refusal of the war during the Informative Chocolate, mutinies has led to much discussion, as early studies sought to minimize it in order to praise the role of Philippe Petain (1856-1951), or the schon reflective model, patriotic and Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty republican commitment of French citizen soldiers.  But there was a subversive, pacifist and political aspect to the mutinies as well, visible in the dozen attempts of schon, mutineers to board trains for Paris in order to demand peace from deputies, in of Antitrust the unequivocal slogan down with the war, in the sometimes overtly militant tone of reflective model, chants and Kikkoman demands (long live the revolution, we want immediate peace). Schon Practice?  The mutinies were suppressed by Informative Speech: Chocolate a mixture of firm repression (around thirty soldiers were shot, several hundred deported in practice colonial penitentiaries, many more were jailed) and concessions (a better leave policy), while further offensives had to be hastily abandoned.  These events, that German commanders failed to exploit,  had a small counterpart in the German navy with the “politicization of naval unrest”  leading to mutiny in Informative Speech: Chocolate the summer of 1917 in practice Wilhelmshaven, for which two sailors were shot.  There were no such instances of pacifist protests among British troops, where the strains of the war nonetheless produced limited disciplinary breakdowns. In June 1917, combatants stationed in Kent formed a Soldiers and Workers council,  and on 9-12 September 1917, the Informative, military camp at Etaples, where discipline was resented, erupted into schon revolt, in what amounted more to a riot, with shades of collective bargaining in khaki, than a mutiny.  Similar events affected colonial (Egyptian and Chinese) workers behind the British front.  The pattern of violent disorder within armies in 1917 was finally illustrated by the Russian expeditionary corps’ mutiny in the center of of Antitrust, France. Russian troops in reflective model France, numbering 16,000 men, had been heavily influenced by the Revolution and Essay Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal" were therefore isolated in schon practice late June 1917 in Sex Education Implementation the military camp of schon reflective practice, La Courtine, hundreds of kilometers from the front. French troops surrounded the camp in August and led an assault (16 to 18 September 1917) with uncertain but high casualties.  All these instances of violent refusal had commonalities and differences. They took place in a volatile context where soldiers grasped at rumors and news that seemed to indicate the possibility of an end to the war, justifying efforts and attempts at collective action. They were almost never led or organized by Program Implementation in Schools political movements, yet could be influenced by schon practice model pacifist demands as they provided a ready vocabulary for soldiers’ longing for peace. Kikkoman? But they were also constrained by a disciplinarian apparatus that remained efficient, and reflective most of all by Informative a military setting that prevented prolonged protest, as units were scattered, and could not abandon their positions without risk to themselves and their comrades.
This explains why most cases of protest took place among troops ordered back to the lines rather than among those in actual combat situation, where, apart from truces, disobedience was simply not an option. Finally, the schon practice model, year 1917 showed a continued rise in Speech: Chocolate desertion, which can be seen through two major cases. In the Italian army, the massive number of men taken prisoner (300,000) by the Austro-Germans after their offensive on schon reflective practice Caporetto (October 1917) was judged, at Essay in "Betrayal" the time, as evidence of the soldiers’ unwillingness to fight. This has been disproved by modern scholars  but nonetheless illustrates the extent to which Italian authorities were scared of complete military collapse due to soldiers’ refusal of the reflective practice, war, a fear that the Bolshevik revolution (at the exact same time) would only strengthen. This military collapse was the fate of the Ottoman army. By December 1917, over 300,000 of its men - around one in eight - had deserted, because of military exhaustion, lack of pay, nourishment and what causes clothing.  It was the first case of schon reflective model, military disintegration as a result of individual soldiers’ refusal to go on of a Named Desire Essay fighting, that would be further evidenced in the final year of the war. Between Disintegration and reflective model Remobilization in 1918 ^ The year 1918 saw intensified fighting, as a renewed war of movement ultimately led to the military collapse of Austria-Hungary and Germany. Soldiers’ attitudes were affected by the short-term changes in the military situation, ensuring their renewed willingness to fight in what seemed to be, at last, decisive battles, yet they continued to be influenced by the longer trends previously evidenced of war-weariness and Sex Education Implementation Essay political protest against the war, explaining their participation in the revolutionary events at the end of the year in the defeated countries. Faced in 1917 with military protest and revolutionary risk, many political leaders pursued peace initiatives, internal (the Peace resolution of the Reichstag in July 1917) and reflective practice external (peace feelers and covert negotiations.)  But at the end of 1917, these diplomatic overtures had proved futile while the revolutionary danger seemed yet stronger in the shape of the Bolshevik revolution.
In a further political shift, shattering the political truces of 1914, new governments were formed - by Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929) in France, Georg von Hertling (1843-1919) in Germany, and Vittorio Orlando (1860-1952) in Italy, for instance, all taking charge in October or November 1917 - with a renewed commitment to Informative Speech:, war until victory, leading to the repression of reflective, dissent and pacifism. This also led to attempts at ideological remobilization in the army, such as patriotic instruction (in Germany) or political education (among British troops).  But the Kikkoman, prospect of peace was redefined in the Fourteen points speech of American President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) on 8 January 1918, drawing considerable attention as it provided a new vocabulary with which to oppose the war, on liberal and national grounds. Most importantly, peace had actually been attained on the eastern front, with the Brest-Litovsk armistice (15 December 1917) and peace (3 March 1918). This had a major, if paradoxical, impact on the Central powers. Indeed, Germany and Austria-Hungary, despite dire social and economic conditions, and growing anti-war movements, began the year with strong positions on the western front, huge territorial gains on the Italian front following Caporetto, and complete victory over Russia in the east. This, however, was a partial cause for further refusal of the war. Schon Practice? On the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty, Kotor / Cattaro (Montenegro), the model, sailors’ overwhelming desire for peace sparked a violent mutiny in early February 1918. Mutineers hoisted red flags and placed political demands for democratization, national emancipation and peace on the basis of the Kikkoman, Fourteen points.  This isolated protest failed but it illustrated a more general unwillingness to go on with the war. In the Austro-Hungarian army, many men expected to be released from service in the spring of 1918 due to the victories in the east.
When ordered back to schon, the front, they undertook open revolts, leading to drastic increases in desertion (230,000 deserters in the summer of 1918).  The final German offensives, starting on 21 March 1918, initiated the last stage of the war, seven months of mobile warfare that made open revolt or fraternization implausible, and that eventually led to Law Essay, the military disintegration of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies. The behavior of soldiers during these spring attacks is not easy to interpret, as there are sure signs of schon practice, remobilization, combatants on each side being conscious that victory and defeat were directly at stake. In Germany, initial optimism was generally high,  even if some soldiers proved reluctant to be transferred towards the western front.  In France, munitions workers stopped their strikes when it appeared that they might cause defeat; and deforestation the renewed invasion of French territory, especially after the German breakthrough of 27 May 1918, could be an incentive to continue fighting. Similarly, British troops, once recovered from the reflective model, initial shock, also proved resilient. But these attacks took their toll on already exhausted troops. They also led to Essay in "Betrayal", panics or massive surrenders among the schon practice, defenders (21,000 for the British on Essay 21 March 1918, a hitherto unseen figure)  and to discouragement and schon model disillusion among the attackers. Of A And A Streetcar Named Essay? The summer of 1918, with the successful allied counteroffensives (beginning on 18 July 1918) marked a final turning point. There were instances of refusal on the allied side, with Australian troops of the 59 th battalion and then 1 st battalion refusing to schon reflective, advance because they were not getting a fair deal on 5 and 21 September 1918.  But for German soldiers, who had expected their attacks to be decisive, there was no longer any foreseeable path to victory. At this stage, in a context of severe lack of supplies and material hardship, the central powers’ armies crumbled into mass desertion and surrender.  Evidence of Masculine Bravado Salesman and A Streetcar, this mass desertion has recently been discussed, as Wilhelm Deist’s notion that the German soldiers conducted a covert military strike with as much as 1 million deserters in late 1918 has been challenged by practice Christoph Jahr and Alexander Watson, the latter insisting that the German army dissolved through ordered surrenders by officers rather than through a disappearance of discipline.  There is little doubt, however, of the rise in individual refusals, as deserters fled by the thousand to neutral countries, roamed the capital, looted train stations and ceased to obey orders  - a situation much similar to that of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman armies.
The last stages of Informative Speech: Chocolate, refusal were at once political and military: in Austria-Hungary, Charles I, Emperor of Austria’s (1887-1922) October manifesto alluding to the autonomy of the state’s national components led to a final disintegration of the reflective model, army along national lines. In Germany, it was in Program the highly politicized community of working-class sailors, that refusal to obey orders for a last, and doomed, naval battle, led to the late October / early November 1918 mutinies in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel that ignited the German Revolution.  As in Russia, a year earlier, soldiers’ unwillingness to go on with a hopeless conflict had precipitated the downfall of a political regime which had staked its survival on a victorious war. Schon Reflective Practice? Interpreting and explaining acceptance and refusal ^ A chronological overview cannot fully explain the subtle variations of causes, obedience and disobedience, of acceptance and refusal in practice model the different armies. These were also influenced by specific factors that relate to combatants’ prior social, national and ideological identities, and to their specific war experiences. Military Configuration and Unit Solidarity ^ Soldiers’ attitudes toward the war must never be considered in the abstract, as if they were entirely autonomous individuals, free to debate and accept or refuse war as an external entity.
Once they became soldiers, choices were limited by the very context of war, and especially by the proximity of Investigation Law Essay, fire and danger. In the front lines, war is a physical reality that can hardly be escaped. As seen before, truces and fraternizations could only exist when permitted by model the lack of of Antitrust, major operations, and in many cases officers made sure, via raids or artillery bombardments, that the front remained “active.”  The possibility of voluntary surrender, alluded to above, was always risky as in the midst of combat, intentions and actions could be misinterpreted, while occurrences of prisoners simply being executed, while not general, were frequent enough to make one think twice. Schon Reflective Practice Model?  And abandoning one’s post or refusing to attack could have dire disciplinary or judicial consequences. In short, in the front lines, obedience and combativeness were the in Death of a Salesman and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay, most obvious and generally the only realistic options, independently of soldiers’ opinions on the war and its continuation.  Even hard bouts of combat did not automatically result in war-weariness or disillusion: soldiers could also experience a desire for retaliation.  Their will to fight was also largely derived from appropriate training, as it helped them overcome their fears, uncertainties and inadequacies. It has been convincingly argued that training should be taken into account, along with consent, coercion and group solidarity, as a decisive factor in securing men’s obedience. Reflective Practice Model?  A third military factor that influenced acceptance and refusal was the what causes, management of schon reflective practice, manpower, and of rest. When periods of leave could not be implemented, major problems could arise: one of the general factors that led to the May / June 1917 mutinies in France was a drastic restriction of leave policy.  And manpower shortages in the final stages of the war played a considerable part in in Death Streetcar Named Desire the central powers’ military collapse, as they were unable to schon reflective practice, relieve fighting units and to allocate rest or leave periods, thus accelerating their demise.  This revealed the of a Streetcar Named Desire Essay, inherent paradox in the small-group argument for military cohesion, as these groups are inevitably worn down by the very attritional warfare they help endure. Model?  A key element in attempts to maintain high cohesion among fighting troops was the presence of Masculine Bravado of a Streetcar Essay, experienced and schon practice trusted officers. Kikkoman? As seen before, officer-men relations go a long way in determining attitudes towards the war, as even skeptic or indifferent soldiers could be swayed by schon practice model charismatic and efficacious officers.
In a letter to his parents on Sex Education Program in Schools 20 August 1914, an otherwise wary French recruit wrote of his captain: I would get myself killed for such a man.  But major offensives disorganized unit hierarchies, and some armies suffered severe shortages of schon model, competent officers: Austria-Hungary and Russia as early as 1915, Italy in 1916.  In France, the arrival of new, inexperienced officers among disgruntled troops who therefore had little trust in them was also a factor in the 1917 mutinies.  The same can be said for the Austrian and German naval mutinies of 1918, where sailors’ refusal was made easier by their estrangement from their officers.  In the Russian army, distrust for Investigation Law Essay officers, especially those thought to schon reflective practice model, be of German descent, was also widespread before the 1917 revolutions.  Another military factor of acceptance and Essay in "Betrayal" refusal was armies’ capacity to feed, clothe and equip soldiers appropriately. Motivation for offensives was more easily obtained when combatants felt that appropriate material preparations were made, with regard to artillery guns, or new weapons such as tanks. These played a part in the cautious optimism of many French soldiers before the spring 1917 offensive, as did the special training received by practice some German troops before the final 1918 offensives.  Conversely, the lack of what causes, supplies and even of basic clothing strongly contributed to the alarming desertion rates in the Central powers and their allies (the Ottoman Empire) in schon model 1918.  Political and Ideological Beliefs ^ The men who entered the what, war in 1914 had very different sets of beliefs and ideals. For some, war found a natural place in schon a nationalist or patriotic world view; for others, it was difficult to what causes deforestation, renounce pacifist ideals, whether derived from religious or political (liberal, socialist) ideals. In some cases, these views directly influenced their war experience and their degree of acceptance. Reflective Practice Model? One must first take into account the numerous cases of men whose volunteering corresponded to political ideals. In 1914, around 15,000 foreigners living in France or abroad volunteered in the French army, in some cases in order to become French citizens, but sometimes for relatively abstract political ideals, like the defense of the Enlightenment and the Rights of man which prompted some Peruvian, Chilean or Brazilian enlistments or the formation of a Garibaldian corps from (then) neutral Italy.  Things were more difficult for pacifists at the outbreak of war, especially where conscientious objection was not recognized. In France, relatively few working-class socialists were present in the trenches, being more useful in armament and munitions factories; but what records remain of socialist and pacifist trajectories in the front lines show men willing to fight yet still acting as bootleggers of socialist culture reading pamphlets out loud or writing to Informative Speech: Chocolate, their deputies.  In Germany, Bavarian union members with pacifist leanings were nonetheless strongly opposed to autocratic Russia, and in the initial stages of the war, their sense of schon practice, union discipline tended to reinforce their military commitment. Kikkoman?  More research would be necessary in order to draw more general conclusions, but it appears that ideological commitment to peace could be reconciled with a minimal participation in the war.
Even where conscientious objection was recognized (Germany and Russia in 1914, Britain from 1916, the schon, USA from 1917), opposition on political and ideological grounds proved extremely difficult. Many religious exemptions were given, for instance to Quakers, but tribunals often judged applicants with harshness. Causes Deforestation? In Britain, there were approximately 16,000 objectors, of whom 10,000 accepted to serve in non-combatant duties. Many others were sentenced to prison, with severe consequences: ten men died in jail, and an additional fifty-nine from the model, conditions of their detention. Program Implementation In Schools Essay?  Yet it could be supposed that in the British and American cases, these legal exits from the war for those who ideologically refused it, however limited and difficult, played a part in schon preserving their armies from cases of Kikkoman, open refusal. If one wonders why the schon reflective practice model, French army massively mutinied in 1917 and the British army remained relatively calm, this might constitute a partial explanation, as politicized soldiers did play a role in instances of collective disobedience. It was not, however, the organizing role generally suspected by Bravado and A Streetcar Named Essay officers keen on seeking ring-leaders and wary of conspiracies. Mutineers were never the schon practice, emissaries of pacifist movements. But when protest broke out, soldiers who had been militant and were politicized could coordinate action and become spokesmen. Kikkoman?  Those combatants with prior experience of collective action, strikes or protest helped shape the movement, as did the schon practice model, militant sailors of working-class backgrounds on mutinous German ships in 1917 and 1918. And of course politicized soldiers and Investigation officers had a prominent role in reflective practice soldiers’ councils during the 1917 revolutions in what Russia.  This explains why political consciousness became an issue for military staffs by schon reflective practice model 1917, as they set up patriotic or political talks, leaflets to be distributed among the troops, propaganda efforts with clearly thought-out talking points.  In 1917-1918, it was the war itself that had taken new political meanings. What Causes Deforestation? Rank and Class: The Social Differentiations behind Obedience and schon reflective model Consent ^ To what degree were national loyalties a motivation for soldiers?
Or, to be more precise, for what causes deforestation which soldiers did this component of the schon reflective practice, war prove effective? While this is still the object of what causes deforestation, some contention, several studies have shown that patriotism was not homogenously shared within warring nations, but was first and schon reflective practice model foremost felt by social elites and middle-class urban dwellers, whereas national sentiment was more remote for rural and causes working-class soldiers. In a path-breaking study of bourgeois intellectuals’ war experiences among other ranks in the French army, Nicolas Mariot has shown the huge divide between representations of the war at one end of the social spectrum (among literate, wealthy intellectuals, many of whom were or became officers, and schon reflective practice whose patriotism was a strong, vibrant, frequently expressed and clearly outlined motivation), and the more ordinary compliance of Masculine Bravado of a and A Streetcar Named Essay, peasants, manual workers, servants and shopkeepers who made up the bulk of the French infantry. Practice Model?  In their case, national sentiment was not necessarily lacking: simply put, it generally was not in play during the war, as they proved indifferent to patriotic proclamations and discourses, sought exit strategies and Kikkoman hoped for an end to the war, while their endurance was primarily due to a sense of duty, courage, and comradeship far remote from the abstract patriotism found among the elites. Model? This finding is confirmed by many studies regarding French soldiers: whereas trench journals, overwhelmingly written by officers and middle-class combatants, reflect patriotic values,  empirical research on rural soldiers has shown them to be massively indifferent to Informative, the war’s patriotic justification, if not to its outcome.  This sharp social divide in the attitudes toward the war, between acceptance on the part of the higher and middle classes, and indifference or sullen endurance among peasants and practice model manual workers, is visible in most countries. The clearest cases are the Speech: Chocolate, Russian and schon reflective model Italian armies, where the nation’s very construction was still thought of as incomplete before the war, due to the weakness of state administration and schooling, incapable of ascribing modern national identities and values among peasant communities. In both these armies, soldiers’ participation to the war was, throughout, involuntary and reluctant.  But this does not mean that, deprived of a national goal or stake these peasant-soldiers were more necessarily prone to refusal or disobedience, even if the events of 1917 showed these two armies to be fragile. In its way, in Italy, the peasant-catholic society was an extraordinary school of obedience and acceptation of Chocolate, one’s fate.  In Germany, too the reflective practice, contrasts are visible between urban or middle-class soldiers and poorer, rural recruits. Masculine Of A Streetcar Named Desire? Students of bourgeois background are over-represented among the 1914 volunteers,  and in reflective practice model his case study of Bavarian combatants, Benjamin Ziemann made a forceful case for the passivity and Bravado in Death of a Named indifference of peasant soldiers, exemplified by the higher rates of self-inflicted wounds. The social divide between these men and reflective practice their socially superior officers would be widened, in of Antitrust Law Essay the later stages of the war, by differences in pay and rations that would fuel “officer-hate” with shades of class resentment. Schon?  Finally, British volunteering statistics allow one to draw much the same conclusions, showing the “reluctance of rural men to Informative Chocolate, come forward”  whereas, enlistment rates proved higher for educated and schon model middle-class professions. 40 percent of the professional and commercial classes enlisted, against 27 percent in industry and 22 percent in agriculture.
The exposure of the urban middle classes to Implementation in Schools, the influences of the press, to the appeal to escape the office routine of schon model, bourgeois life, was not without its effect.  While additional data would certainly be welcome, this comparative overview clearly indicates that acceptance and refusal of the war were socially differentiated. Social elites, whether by schooling (Public-school students and graduates in Britain; Normaliens in and Modesty France)  or economic status, were generally willing participants of the war because they were able to envision it in practice model national terms, thinking of their duty and their responsibility with a patriotic vocabulary. It should be noted that these visions had a lasting effect on the way historians reconstructed attitudes toward the Kikkoman, war, as these social elites left large quantities of easily accessible and well-written documents (letters, memoirs, novels), leading many researchers to believe that their stated patriotic beliefs were in fact shared by all soldiers.  But, on the contrary, these representations distinguished them from more ordinary soldiers - the schon reflective practice model, petty employees, peasants, manual workers, servants who made up the causes, vast majority of schon, their countries’ infantries, and for whom national loyalties were almost never altogether absent but generally not a motivational factor during the Speech: Chocolate, ordeal of 1914-1918. Minorities, National Integration and the Attitudes towards war ^ National and dynastic allegiances were crucial to the war effort, but often proved ambiguous. Schon Reflective Practice Model? For some (French or German Jews for instance), the Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal", war could be seen as a means of national integration; for others, on the contrary, the war could be seen as an obstacle to model, national hopes or aspirations: Czechs and Slovaks within the Habsburg Empire, for example, could show reluctance towards a war that led them to causes deforestation, fight other Slavs in Russian uniforms. Schon Reflective Model? Colonial soldiers formed a specific group whose loyalties could also prove uncertain. Armies and political leaders were acutely conscious of what deforestation, these ambiguities, and often suspected national minorities and specific ethnic groups of being unreliable or disloyal. The degree of national integration of groups and individuals was therefore a key variable in determining not only acceptance and practice model refusal towards the Sex Education Program Essay, war, but also the way these attitudes were perceived and in reflective some cases punished. At the outbreak of war, contrary to many beliefs, minority groups did not resist in the conflict in Unfaithfulness, and Modesty in "Betrayal" a significant way.
The sole serious instance of refusal took place in the British Dominion of South Africa, where, as a legacy of the Boer wars, some 12,000 Afrikaners rose up in reflective practice model rebellion in the autumn of 1914. Essay Unfaithfulness, And Modesty In "Betrayal"?  In Ireland, where the Home Rule issue had been the source of unrest and political uncertainty up until the summer of 1914, both unionist and nationalists initially supported the war, and around 200,000 Irishmen volunteered, with rates close to those of rural England. Practice Model?  In an even more striking display of national loyalty by often marginalized minorities, French and German Jews clearly supported the war, in the belief that their dutiful and willing involvement in the conflict would eliminate the remaining barriers and stereotypes.  And in the USA in 1917, with a large part of the Investigation of Antitrust Law Essay, population born overseas, immigrants volunteered for the war in accordance with their national aspirations: 40 percent of the schon practice model, first 100,000 applicants for the draft were Polish, hoping to Masculine in Death and A Streetcar Named Essay, participate in their nation’s liberation.  But some cases proved more ambiguous. French Canadians were far less eager to volunteer than English-speakers, of whom many were immigrants born in Britain, willing to cross the ocean for the defense of the former country, whereas France and its anticlerical policy held less appeal for strongly catholic Quebec. French Canadians thus represented 35 percent of the reflective model, population, but only 5 percent of volunteers.  In Russia, Finns were not conscripted, and other national groups were dispersed within units.  In Austria-Hungary, where the issue of Investigation Law Essay, minorities’ loyalty was simply vital to the survival of the state, the statistical success of mobilization did not dispel worries and uncertainties. A degree of Czech reluctance was visible at the beginning of the war: in practice Prague on 22 September 1914, two battalions left for the front under a Czech flag, displaying we are marching against the Russians and we do not know why.  This sustained the preexisting fears of disobedience along national lines, that received apparent confirmation in the spring of Kikkoman, 1915, when the reflective model, collapse of the 28 th and 36 th (Czech) infantry regiments against Russian troops were deemed suspicious by the Austro-Hungarian high command.  Authorities were therefore encouraged in their increasingly strict policies of surveillance and geographical distribution: they qualified some ethno-linguistic groups, including the Italians, as politically unreliable, and tried to Sex Education, avoid placing Slavic troops against Russian armies. Conversely, they had more success when they placed Croat (who were generally thought of as reliable) and schon reflective Slovene soldiers on the Italian front after Italy’s entry into the war in Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools May 1915, partly because these men realized what they had to lose in reflective practice model case of an Italian victory and annexation of Informative, Adriatic territories.  Nevertheless, the national question proved harrowing throughout the war for Austria-Hungary, as there were clear instances of refusal on national basis. In 1915-1916, entire Czech, but also Ruthene and Polish battalions were surrendering to the enemy without a fight. Practice?  In the Navy, minority affiliations played little part in the Cattaro revolt of 1918, but led to smaller incidents such as the mutiny on Informative Chocolate a torpedo boat led by two sailors of Slovene and Czech origin on 5 October 1917.  In the wake of the October 1918 defeat at Vittorio Veneto, minorities, subject to powerful propaganda efforts by the allies, ultimately refused to go on fighting for a dynasty that had lost its last unifying figure two years earlier with the death of Emperor Francis Joseph. Schon Reflective Model?  The strained loyalties of minority groups, as the war went on, are further exemplified in the case of the Alsatians-Lorrainers in the German army and the Flemish in Essay on Infidelity, and Modesty in "Betrayal" the Belgian army. Some 380,000 men from Alsace and schon reflective practice the part of Lorraine annexed by Germany in 1871 fought in Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, the war, but with noticeably small enthusiasm: there were few volunteers in 1914 (around 8,000), whereas 17,250 men managed to enlist across the border, in schon reflective practice the French army. In order to Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools Essay, prevent desertions towards France (precise rates are uncertain), they were mostly assigned to the eastern front. When repatriated, some mutinied on March and May 1918, in one instance with the singing of the Marseillaise , and on the other with plans to desert.  The Belgian case shows how refusal can be linked to resentment within a complex nation-state: Flemish-speaking soldiers represented around 60 percent of combatants, whereas the hierarchy was overwhelmingly francophone.
This led to reflective model, political action among Flemish catholic elites, in causes deforestation the form of the frontist movement ( Frontbeweging ),  and reflective practice model explains the on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal", steep difference of origin among deserters: 93 percent of the 141 Belgian soldiers who defected to schon practice model, the enemy were Flemish.  Within an older, relatively homogeneous nation-state such as France, regional identities played a smaller role. Bravado Of A Salesman Essay? What data exists shows that deaths in combat as well as desertions were quite evenly distributed geographically, even if border counties tend to schon reflective practice, have slightly higher desertion rates (4.25 percent of conscripts for Pyrenees-Orientales, against a national average of 2.25 percent).  But France, like Britain, was an imperial power and enlisted colonial soldiers. These men’s attitudes towards the war have not been sufficiently studied, due in part to Sex Education Program in Schools Essay, a lack of reflective practice model, first-person written sources, but nonetheless show that instances of refusal, while not necessarily more prevalent, were punished more harshly. What Causes Deforestation? The mutiny of 5 th (Native) Light Infantry in the Indian army in schon reflective Singapore, on February 1915, led to Kikkoman, thirty-seven executions. It appears to have been linked more to leadership issues and insufficient rations than to a protest against the war or the schon model, colonial order. Kikkoman?  A similarly harsh treatment was handed to Tunisian soldiers, whose refusal to fight near Ypres in December 1914 led to summary shootings, ten men being picked randomly for execution.  Refusal along ideological lines could be present, in some cases: in the French army, a Lieutenant from schon practice, Algeria, Rabah Boukabouya, deserted to the German lines on Salesman Streetcar Desire 15 April 1915, and became a spokesman for a revolt of Muslim soldiers in practice model the French and British armies, with little success.  But for the majority of colonial soldiers, compliance, and not refusal, remained the norm, as some even hoped that loyal service in the army could ameliorate their economic status or even lend support to their political agenda, after the war.  A measure of Unfaithfulness, and Modesty in "Betrayal", humility is necessary in schon reflective practice model concluding on this topic. We will never know with any degree of certainty what soldiers thought, felt, believed or hoped between 1914 and 1918. Most of Program Implementation, them left no record of schon reflective practice, their attitudes toward the Bravado and A, war, and many others left ambiguous or contradictory traces of their perceptions. Yet this does not mean in schon reflective practice model any way that their tenacity remains a mystery.
The questions ceaselessly asked by historians, How did they hold?, Why did they fight?, are, to some extent, disingenuous. They fought because it was normal, as soldiers in Bravado in Death of a and A Desire a war, to do so, and most of them found ways to schon reflective practice, cope with the strains of combat. In 1914-1918, as in all other conflicts, military obedience was the norm, mutiny and Essay and Modesty refusal were the exception. Unlike in 1914, there were no joyous celebrations of the war in London, Paris or Berlin in September 1939. But soldiers fought all the same. And when French reserve soldiers were called up for service in Algeria, in schon reflective practice model 1955-1956, in a deeply unpopular war that was vocally opposed by some parties and Masculine Bravado and A Streetcar Named unions, they complied.  The compulsion to fight was even stronger during the Great War, because to refuse, in practice the initial stages of the Informative Speech:, war, would have meant defying or tearing oneself from the entire social fabric, military and domestic, bent on schon reflective adhering to and participating in the conflict. The response to the outbreak of the war must be seen as proof of the of a and A Named Desire Essay, extraordinary success in the century-long process of constructing modern states and, within them, national or dynastic identities and schon reflective practice loyalties, that left little choice to individuals in the summer of 1914. This became even more obvious after the first few weeks of fighting as casualties mounted in Speech: Chocolate a horrifying way and would only appear redeemed by complete victory, rendering unimaginable the prospects of peace, negotiation, compromise or refusal. It does not ensue that soldiers, as individuals, “accepted” the war as the practice model, war simply was there, whether soldiers accepted it or not.
At best, they could find ways to endure the war, seeking solace in wartime bonds with the rear, their chiefs and their comrades, adapting to difficult conditions while bending to strict discipline. Within this general framework, some soldiers, endowed with specific national, political or social identities, such as students or intellectuals, spoke, wrote or acted with conscious approbation. Similarly, the specific dispositions of minority national groups or of socialist militants could have the reverse effect, leading to increased or hastened refusal. But both these attitudes remained marginal as the majority of soldiers, from working-class or rural backgrounds, simply complied and endured, hoping for a favorable end to the conflict. In later stages of the conflict, especially after 1916, new discourses and practices of opposition became available as the war’s continuation was contested from inside as well as outside the military. Kikkoman? Peace became thinkable, and various forms of protest emerged.
In 1917, in particular, in a fluid political context and faced with a prolonged military stalemate, most armies experienced a degree of mutiny and of soldiers’ refusal to go on fighting. But it was only where the reflective practice model, attitudes of the soldiers combined and converged with that of significant social and political movements in the rear that refusal of the in "Betrayal", war could, as in Russia and Germany, effectively be carried out. After the war, acceptance and refusal of the war remained important topics for discussion and remembrance, in many forms: veterans’ associations sought the rehabilitation of executed soldiers, some disillusioned writers voiced their (belated) abhorrence of the schon, war, statues and of Antitrust memorials paid tribute to combatants’ commitment and reflective model courage, and, on different sides of the of Antitrust, political divide, mutineers or volunteers were glorified, as pacifists and nationalists fought to define the meaning of the schon reflective model, war. But in Investigation Law Essay the end, for historians, the schon reflective practice, debate on soldiers’ consent to the war is what causes, neither moral, nor political. It is rather a debate on their degree of agency during the schon reflective model, conflict. This article has argued that in the context of the First World War, it is unrealistic to view soldiers as free agents, at leisure to decide whether to participate in Chocolate the conflict, and whose conscious acceptance of the war prolonged its violence.  It points to the strength of states and military institutions, of model, social norms and interactions in in Schools shaping obedience and preventing refusal. Schon Reflective Practice Model? Most of all, it stresses the inertia of the war, an event beyond soldiers’ reach, overwhelming and persistent, that had to be faced and experienced, collectively, whether one accepted or refused it as an individual.
Andre Loez, Sciences Po Paris. ^ Buton, Francois, et al.: 1914-1918: Understanding the Controversy, issued by Laviedesidees.fr, online: http://www.booksandideas.net/1914-1918-Understanding-the.html (retrieved: 10 June 2013); Horne, John / Smith, Leonard V. / Winter, Jay: The Soldiers’ War. Coercion or Consent?, in: Winter, Jay (ed.): The Legacy of the Great War. Ninety Years On, Columbia, Missouri 2009, pp. Bravado Named Essay? 91-122, quoted by Winter, pp. 91-92. Schon Reflective Practice? ^ For an overview, see Strachan, Hew: The First World War: To Arms, Oxford 2001, chapter 2. ^ Boulanger, Philippe: La France devant la conscription, Paris 2001, p. Causes Deforestation? 172. Practice Model? ^ Maurin, Jules: Armee – Guerre – Societe: Soldats languedociens (1889-1919), Paris 1982. Informative Speech: Chocolate? ^ Watson, Alexander: “Voluntary Enlistment in the Great War: a European Phenomenon?” In: Kruger, Christine G./ Levsen, Sonja (eds.): War Volunteering in Modern Times. From the French Revolution to the Second World War, Basingstoke/New York 2011, p. Reflective? 165. ^ Stevenson, David: 1914-1918, The History of the First World War, London 2004, p. In Death Of A Streetcar Desire Essay? 201. ^ Sanborn, Joshua: The Mobilization of schon, 1914 and Kikkoman the Question of the Russian Nation: A Re-examination, in: Slavic Review 59 (2000), pp.
267-289; Sanborn, Joshua: Drafting the schon reflective practice model, Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905-1925, DeKalb 2011, pp. 30-31. Despite these riots, mobilization proved efficient as 96 percent of causes deforestation, those called up reported for duty. ^ Verhey, Jeffrey: The Spirit of 1914. Militarism, Myth, and model Mobilization in Germany, Cambridge 2000; Gregory, Adrian: The Last Great War. Kikkoman? British Society and the First World War, Cambridge 2008; Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001; Becker, Jean-Jacques: 1914. Comment les Francais sont entres dans la guerre, Paris 1977. ^ Pourcher, Yves: Les jours de guerre. La vie des Francais au jour le jour entre 1914 et 1918, Paris 1994, chapter 1. ^ Barge, Francois: Avoir vingt ans dans les tranchees, Saint Pourcain-sur-Sioule 1984, p. 1. ^ Beckett, Ian F. W. Schon Model? / Simpson, Keith (eds): A Nation in Arms. A social study of the British Army in the First World War, Manchester 1985; Gregory, Last Great War 2008, p. 72. ^ Ziemann, Benjamin: War Experiences in Rural Germany, 1914-1923, Oxford 2007 p. 19; Becker, 1914. Comment les Francais 1977. ^ Horne, John / Kramer, Alan: German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial, New Haven et al.
2001. ^ Flood, P.J.: France 1914-18. Public Opinion and the War Effort, London et al. Kikkoman? 1990, pp. 7-15; Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001. ^ Gregory, Adrian et al.: Railway Stations: Gateways and Termini for the Metropolitan experience of war, in: Robert, Jean-Louis / Winter, Jay (eds.), Capital Cities at War. Paris, London, Berlin, 1914-1919, volume II, Cambridge 2007, pp. 23-56. ^ Lein, Richard: Between Acceptance and Refusal - Soldiers' Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by schon Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1546333/ie1418.10003, p. 2. Masculine In Death Salesman And A Desire? ^ Watson, Alexander: Enduring the Great War.
Combat, Morale and Collapse in the German and British Armies, 1914–1918, Cambridge 2008. Ziemann, War Experiences 2007. ^ Cru, Jean-Norton: Lettres du front et d'Amerique: 1914-1919, Aix-en-Provence 2007, p. 93. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. Schon Reflective Practice Model? 83. ^ Lafon, Alexandre: Obeir, contourner, refuser: les strategies devoilees par le temoignage du combattant Henri Despeyrieres, in: Loez, Andre / Mariot, Nicolas (eds): Obeir/Desobeir. Les mutineries de 1917 en perspective, Paris 2008, pp. 153-166. ^ Stevenson, 1914-1918, The History of the Law Essay, First World War 2004, p. 202. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 3. Practice? ^ Wildman, Allan K.: The End of the in Death of a Salesman Streetcar Named Essay, Russian Imperial Army, 2 volumes, Princeton 1980, volume 1, p. Schon Reflective Model? 97. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. Investigation Law Essay? 66; Cazals, Remy / Loez, Andre: 14-18, Vivre et mourir dans les tranchees, Paris 2012, p. 199. ^ Winter, Jay (ed.): The Legacy of the Great War. Ninety Years On, Columbia, Missouri 2009; Prost, Antoine / Winter, Jay: The Great War in History. Debates and Controversies 1914 to the Present, Cambridge 2005 . Practice Model? ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, p. 58. ^ Sheffield, Gary D.: Leadership in the Trenches: Officer-Man Relations, Morale and Discipline in the British Army in the era of the First World War, London 2000; Saint-Fuscien, Emmanuel: A vos ordres? La relation d’autorite dans l’armee francaise de la Grande Guerre, Paris 2011; Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008; Loez, Andre: 14-18, les refus de la guerre.
Une histoire des mutins, Paris 2010; Lafon, “Obeir, contourner, refuser a travers le temoignage du combattant Henri Despeyrieres” in Loez/Mariot (eds.), Obeir/desobeir 2008. The degree of proximity between officers and Bravado of a and A Streetcar Named Desire men is generally thought to be higher in more democratic societies such as Australia and France, but this is debatable; Fuller, J.G.: Troop Morale and Popular Culture in the British and Dominion Armies 1914-1918, Oxford 1991, pp. 23-51; Stanley, Peter: Bad Characters. Schon Practice? Sex, Crime, Mutiny, Murder and the Australian Imperial Force, Sydney 2010, pp. Essay Unfaithfulness,? 96-97. ^ Saint-Fuscien, Emmanuel: Forcer l’obeissance: intentions, formes et effets d’une pratique militaire dans l’activite combattante de la Grande Guerre, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 32-46; Guerrini, Irene / Pluviano, Marco: Le fucilazioni sommarie nella prima guerra Mondiale. Udine 2004. ^ McCartney, Helen: Citizen Soldiers. The Liverpool Territorials in practice the First World War, Cambridge 2005, p. 122. ^ The fluid nature of officer-men relations has been described, in the French case, through a highly theorized model stating that the soldiers’ conditional obedience to Masculine of a Salesman Streetcar, officers’ orders depended on the proportionality of military losses and gains. See: Smith, Leonard V.: Between Mutiny and Obedience. The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during World War I, Princeton 1994. Schon Model? ^ Fuller, Troop Morale 1991; Cochet, Francois: Survivre au front, 1914-1918.
Les poilus entre contrainte et consentement, Saint-Cloud 2005; Saunders, Nicholas: Trench Art. Materialities and what Memories of schon practice model, War, Oxford et al. 2003; Audoin-Rouzeau, Stephane: Men at War. Kikkoman? National Sentiment and Trench Journalism in France during the First World War, Oxford et al. 1992 . ^ Hanna, Martha: A Republic of Letters: The Epistolary Tradition in France during World War I, in: The American Historical Review 108 (2003); Prochasson, Christophe: Aimer et gouverner a distance. Le temoignage des correspondances, in: Ibid., 1914-1918 Retours d’experiences. Paris 2008, pp.
209-239. Schon Model? ^ Beckett / Simpson, Nation in Arms 1985; Gregory, Last Great War 2008; McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005. ^ Cochet, Survivre 2005; Loez, Andre: L’espace public des tranchees. Tenir sous le regard des autres en 1914-1918, in: Cazals Remy / Picard, Emmanuelle, Rolland, Denis (eds): La Grande Guerre, pratiques et experiences, Toulouse 2005, pp. Kikkoman? 259-268. Schon Model? ^ Fuller, Troop morale 1991; Bourne, John: The British Working Man in Arms, in: Cecil, Hugh / Liddle, Peter (eds): Facing Armageddon, The First World War Experienced, London 1996, pp. 336-352; Prost, Antoine: Les limites de la brutalisation: tuer sur le front occidental, 1914-1918, in: Vingtieme Siecle, Revue d’histoire 81 (2004), pp. 5-20; Ludtke, Alf: War as Work: Aspects of Kikkoman, Soldiering in Twentieth-Century Wars, in: Ludtke, Alf / Weisbrod, Bernd: No Man’s Land of reflective model, Violence.
Extreme wars in the 20 th Century, Gottingen 2006, pp. Informative Chocolate? 127-151. ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008; Watson, Alexander: Self-deception and Survival: Mental Coping Strategies on the Western Front, 1914-18, in: Journal of Contemporary History 41 (2006), pp. 247-268; Fabi, Lucio: ‘Se domani si va all’assalto / soldatino non farti ammazzar…’ Appunti e riflessioni sulla vita e la morte del soldato in trincea, in: Labanca, Nicola / Rochat, Giorgio (eds): Il soldato, la guerra e il rischio di morire, Milan 2006, pp. 153-165; Roper, Michael: The secret battle. Emotional survival in the Great War, Manchester 2009. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, pp. 41-42; Cronier, Emmanuelle: Permissionnaires dans la Grande Guerre, Paris 2013. ^ Paveau, Marie-Anne: Citations a l’ordre et croix de guerre.
Fonctions des sanctions positives dans la guerre de 1914-1918, in: Cazals / Picard / Rolland, Pratiques et experiences 2005, pp. 247-258; Winckle, Ralph: Der Dank des Vaterlandes. Eine Symbolgeschichte des Eisernen Kreuzes 1914 bis 1936, Essen 2007. ^ Englander, David: Mutinies and Military Morale, in Strachan, Hew (ed.): The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War, Oxford/New York 1998, pp. Schon Reflective Practice Model? 191-203, p. 192. ^ Bach, Andre: Fusilles pour l’exemple 1914-1915, Paris 2004; Offenstadt, Nicolas: Les fusilles de la Grande Guerre et la memoire collective, Paris 2009; Oram, Gerard: Military executions during World War I. Chocolate? Basingstoke et al. 2007; Pluviano / Guerrini, Fucilazioni 2004; Le Naour, Jean-Yves: Fusilles: enquete sur les crimes de la Justice militaire, Paris 2010; Babington, Anthony: For the Sake of Example. Schon Reflective Model? Capital Courts-Martial, 1914–1920, London 2002; Forcella, Enzo / Monticone, Alberto: Plotone di esecuzione. I processi della prima guerra mondiale, Bari 1998; Dimitrova, Snezhana: Executions pour l’exemple dans l’armee bulgare, in: Cazals / Picard / Rolland, Pratiques et experiences 2005, pp. 227-236. ^ McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005, p. Kikkoman? 164; Fabi, Lucio: gente di trincea, la grande guerra sul Carso e sull' Isonzo. Milan 1994; Loez, Refus 2010, p. 523-525. Schon Practice? ^ Gregory, Last Great War 2008; Ridel, Charles: Les embusques, Paris 2007. Speech:? ^ Ashworth, Tony: Trench Warfare, 1914-1918. Model? The Live and Let Live System, London, 2000 ; Brown, Malcolm et al.: Freres de tranchees.
Paris 2005. ^ Ashworth, Trench Warfare 2000. ^ Quoted by Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 55. What? ^ Boulanger, La France devant la conscription 2001, p. 130. ^ Cochet, Survivre 2005; Lafon, Contourner 2008; Cazals / Loez, Vivre et mourir 2012. Schon Reflective Practice? ^ Isnenghi, Mario / Rochat, Giorgio: La Grande Guerra 1914-1918, Bologna 2008, p. 249; Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, pp. Kikkoman? 150-154; McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005, pp. 172-176; Morton, Desmond: Billet pour le front. Histoire sociale des volontaires canadiens, 1914-1919, Outremont 2005, p. 281. Reflective? ^ Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, p. 151. ^ Offenstadt, Les fusilles de la Grande Guerre 2009. ^ Watson, Enduring the Kikkoman, Great War 2008, p. 39; Procacci, Giovanna: Soldati e prigionieri italiani nella grande guerra. Con una raccolta di lettere inedite, Bologna 2000, p. 29. ^ Smith, Leonard V.: The Disciplinary Dilemma of French Military Justice, September 1914-April 1917: The Case of the 5e Division d’Infanterie, in: The Journal of Military History 55/1 (1991), pp. 47-68; Jahr, Christoph: Gewohnliche Soldaten: Desertion und Deserteure im deutschen und britischen Heer 1914-1918, Gottingen 1998. ^ Panel, Louis-Napoleon: La Grande Guerre des gendarmes, Paris 2013. Schon Reflective? ^ Wolf, Susanne: Guarded neutrality. Diplomacy and Internment in Investigation of Antitrust Law Essay the Netherlands during the First World War, Leiden 2013; Ruquet, Miquel: Deserteurs et insoumis de la Grande guerre, 1914-1918, sur la frontiere des Pyrenees-Orientales, Canet 2009. ^ Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008, p. 286. ^ Stone, Norman: The Eastern Front 1914-1917, New York 1975, p. 191; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. 89; Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 6; see also Jankowski, Paul: Verdun, 21 fevrier 1916, Paris 2013, pp. 256-7. ^ Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998; Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011. ^ Data compiled from: Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, p. 141, Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998, pp. 150, 172; Benvindo, Bruno: Deserter le front belge. La guerre et ses marges en 1914-1918, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp.
329-344; Procacci, Soldati e prigionier 2000, p. 29. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 92; see also Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, pp. 167-168. Model? ^ Bonzon, Thierry / Robert, Jean-Louis: Nous crions grace, 154 lettres de pacifistes, Juin-Novembre 1916, Paris 1989. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. Masculine Bravado Of A And A Desire Essay? 114; see also Davidian, Irina: The Russian Soldier’s Morale from the Evidence of Tsarist Military Censorship, in: Cecil / Liddle, Facing 1996, pp. 425-433. ^ Jankowski, Verdun 2013, pp. 248-9; Rolland, Denis: La greve des tranchees. Les mutineries de 1917, Paris 2005. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. 115. ^ Figes, Orlando: A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924, London 1997; Wildman, Imperial army 1980. ^ Reberioux, Madeleine: Le socialisme et la premiere guerre mondiale, in: Droz, Jacques, Histoire generale du socialisme, t. II, de 1875 a 1918, Paris 1997 , pp. Schon Model? 585-641. Investigation Of Antitrust? ^ Pluviano, Marco / Guerrini, Irene: Fucilate i Fanti della Catanzaro, La fine della leggenda sulle decimazioni della grande Guerra, Udine 2007, pp. 106-107. ^ Pedroncini, Guy: Les mutineries de 1917, Paris 1967; Smith, Between Mutiny 1994. Schon Model? ^ Loez, Refus 2010; Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008. ^ Rolland, Greve 2005; Loez, Refus 2010. ^ Pohlmann, Markus: Une occasion manquee ? Les mutineries de 1917 dans la strategie et l’historiographie allemandes, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp.
385-398. ^ Englander, Mutinies 1998, p. Kikkoman? 199. ^ Epkenhans, Michael: ‘Red Sailors’ and schon reflective practice the Demise of the German Empire, 1918, in: Elleman, Bruce A. Masculine Bravado In Death Salesman And A Desire Essay? (ed.): Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century, an schon practice International Perspective, London 2003, pp. 66-87. ^ Beckett, Ian F. Of Antitrust Law Essay? W.: The Great War 1914-1918. New York 2001, p. 227. ^ Julian Putkowski, quoted by Gary Sheffield, Leadership 2010, p. 153; see also Dallas, Gloden / Gill, Douglas, Mutiny at Etaples Base in reflective 1917, in: Past Present 69 (1975), pp. 88-112. ^ Dallas, Gloden / Gill, Douglas: The Unknown Army: Mutinies in the British Army in World War I, London 1985, pp. Informative? 85-86. ^ Adam, Remi: Histoire des soldats russes en France, 1915-1920, Paris 1986; Cockfield, Jamie H.: With Snow on Their Boots. The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France during World War I, New York 1998. ^ Labanca, Nicola: Caporetto. Storia di una disfatta, Florence 1997; Wilcox, Vanda, Discipline in the Italian Army 1915–1918, in: Purseigle, Pierre (ed.): Warfare and Belligerence. Perspectives in schon model First World War Studies, Boston et al. 2005, pp. 73–100. ^ Zurcher, Erik Jan, Between Death and Desertion. The experience of the Ottoman soldier in World War I, in: Turcica 28 (1996), pp.
235-258; Besikci, Mehmet: Between acceptance and refusal: Soldiers’ attitudes towards war (Ottoman Empire / Middle East), in: 1914-1918-online. What Deforestation? International Encyclopedia of the First World War. ^ Stevenson, David: The Failure of Peace by Negotiation in 1917, in: The Historical Journal, 34/1 (1991), pp. 65-86. Schon Reflective Model? ^ Horne, John (ed.): State, Society and deforestation Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge 2002; Stevenson, David: With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918, London 2011 p. Schon Practice? 266. Essay Unfaithfulness, And Modesty? ^ Halpern, Paul G.: The Cattaro mutiny, 1918, in: Elleman, Bruce/Bell, Christopher: Naval mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective 2003, pp 54-79. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 7. ^ Watson, Enduring the schon practice, Great War 2008, chapter 6. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 53. ^ Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall 2011, p. Sex Education Program Implementation Essay? 167. Schon Model? ^ Stanley, Bad Characters 2010, pp. 209-210. Investigation Of Antitrust? ^ Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall 2011, p. 244. ^ Watson, Enduring the reflective practice model, Great War 2008, chapter 6; Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998; Deist, Wilhelm: The Military Collapse of the German Empire: the Reality behind the Stab-in-the-Back Myth, in: War in History 3/2 (1996), pp. 186-207. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 103. ^ Epkenhans, Red Sailors 2003. ^ Ashworth, Tony: Trench Warfare, 1914-1918. The Live and Let Live System, London 2000 . ^ Jones, Heather: Violence Against Prisoners of War in the First World War: Britain, France and Germany, 1914-1920, Cambridge, 2011. ^ Jankowski, Verdun 2013, p. 243, points to extremely low desertion rates in Sex Education Essay the heart of battles: in Fleury and schon model Souville, they are at 0,2 percent in May and July 1916 in the 2nd Bavarian Division and the opposite French units. ^ Watson, Enduring 2008, p. 84. ^ Strachan, Hew: Training, Morale and Modern War, in: Journal of Sex Education Program Implementation Essay, Contemporary History 41/2 (2006), pp. 211-227, p. Schon? 219. ^ Cronier, Permissionnaires 2013; Loez, Refus 2010; Cronier, Emmanuelle: Le role des permissionnaires parisiens dans la revolte de 1917: un front contamine par Paris ?, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 125-138 ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. Sex Education Essay? 42; Cornwall, Mark: Disintegration and defeat: The Austro-Hungarian Revolution, in: Cornwall, Mark (ed.): The last years of Austria-Hungary, Exeter 2002, pp. 167-196. ^ Strachan, Training, Morale and Modern War 2006, p. 212. ^ Quoted by Lafon, Contourner 2008, p. 159. ^ Deak, Istvan: Beyond Nationalism. A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848-1918, New York 1990; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980; Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008. ^ Loez, Refus 2010, p. 137. ^ Halpern, Cattaro 2003. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980. ^ Loez, Andre: La bataille avant la bataille: imaginer et deviner l’offensive, in Offenstadt, Nicolas (ed.): Le Chemin des Dames.
De l’evenement a la memoire, Paris 2004, pp. 197-205; Watson, Enduring 2008, pp. 161-164. ^ Zurcher, Ottoman Soldier 1996. ^ Bourlet, Michael: Les volontaires latino-americains dans l’armee francaise pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale, in: Revue historique des armees 255 (2009), pp. 68-78; Heyries, Hubert: Les Garibaldiens de 14: splendeurs et miseres des Chemises rouges en France de la Grande Guerre a la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Nice 2005. ^ Ducoulombier, Romain: La Sociale sous l’uniforme: obeissance et resistance a l’obeissance dans les rangs du socialisme et du syndicalisme francais, 1914-1916, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. Schon Reflective? 266-279. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. Essay On Infidelity, And Modesty? 86. Schon Reflective Practice? ^ Brock, Peter: Against the draft. Essays on conscientious objection from the radical Reformation to the Second World War, Toronto 2006; Bibbings, Lois: Telling Tales about Men. Conceptions of conscientious objectors to military service during the First World War, New York / Manchester 2009; Gutierrez, Edward A: Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (USA), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Salesman Named Freie Universitat Berlin. Schon Practice? ^ Loez, Refus 2010, pp. 316-317. Program In Schools? ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980; Ferro, Marc: Le soldat russe en 1917.
Indiscipline, pacifisme, patriotisme et revolution, in: Annales E.S.C. 26/1 (1971), pp. 14-39. ^ Horne, State, Society and Mobilization in Europe 2002; Forster, Jurgen: Ludendorff and schon reflective model Hitler in Perspective: The Battle for the German Soldier’s Mind, 1917-1944, in: War in History 10 (2003), pp. 321-334; Loez, Refus 2010, pp. 532-534. ^ Mariot, Nicolas: Tous unis dans la tranchee? 1914-1918, les intellectuels rencontrent le peuple, Paris 2013. ^ Audoin-Rouzeau, Trench Journalism 1992 . ^ Maurin, Soldats languedociens, 1982. ^ Fabi, Lucio: Gente di trincea. La grande guerra sul Carso e sull'Isonzo, Bologna 2009; Prezioso, Stefanie: Obeir pour mieux desobeir ? Les volontaires italiens dans la Premiere Guerre mondiale, in Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 251-265; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980. Causes? ^ Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008, p. 280. ^ Watson, Voluntary Enlistment in the Great War 2011, p. 171. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007; Watson, Enduring 2008. ^ Watson, Voluntary Enlistment in schon practice model the Great War 2011, p. 171. Of Antitrust? ^ Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001, p. Model? 160; Watson, Janet S. K.: Fighting Different Wars.
Experience, Memory and the Great War in Kikkoman Britain, Cambridge 2004. ^ Mariot, Tous unis 2013; Parker, Peter: The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public-School Ethos, London 1987. Schon? ^ Mariot, Nicolas: Faut-il etre motive? In Geneses 4/53 (2003), online: http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=GEN_053_0154#anchor_plan (retrieved 02.09.2014). ^ Garson, N.G.: South Africa and Implementation World War I, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 8/1 (1979), pp. 68-85. ^ Gregory, Last Great War 2008, p. 82; Jeffery, Keith: Ireland and the Great War, Cambridge 2000, pp. Schon Practice Model? 6-7. ^ Tim Grady, The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War in History and Memory. Causes Deforestation? Liverpool 2011, pp. 3-4; Landau, Philippe: Les Juifs de France et la Grande Guerre. Practice? Un patriotisme republicain, Paris 1999. ^ Gutierrez, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (USA), p. 1. ^ Stevenson, History 2004, p. 201; Morton, Billet; Bouvier, Patrick: Deserteurs et insoumis. Les Canadiens francais et la justice militaire (1914-1918), Outremont 2003. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, pp. 102-103. ^ Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001, p. 157; Deak, Beyond Nationalism 1990, p. 197. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and Essay Unfaithfulness, and Modesty Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 3. ^ Pleterski, Janko: The Southern Slav Question, in: Cornwall, Last Years 2002, pp.
119-148. ^ Jerabek, Rudolf: The Eastern Front, in: Cornwall, Last Years 2002, pp. 149-165, quoted p. 158. ^ Halpern, Cattaro 2003, p. 66. ^ Cornwall, Mark: The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds, London / New York 2000. ^ Kramer, Alan: ‘Wackes’ at War: Alsace-Lorraine and the Failure of German National Mobilization, 1914–1918, in: Horne, State, Society and Mobilization in practice Europe 2002, pp. 105–121. ^ De Schaepdrijver, Sophie: La Belgique et la Premiere Guerre mondiale, Brussels 2004, p. 186. ^ Benvindo, Deserter 2008, p. 336. ^ Ruquet, Deserteurs 2009, p. 53. ^ Beckett, Great War 2001, p. 222; see also Michel, Marc: Les Africains et la Grande Guerre. L’appel a l’Afrique 1914-1918, Paris 2003, pp. 102-106. ^ Meynier, Gilbert: Pour l'exemple. Un sur dix ! Les decimations en 1914, in: Politique aujourd'hui (1976), pp. 55-70. ^ Meynier, Gilbert: L’Algerie revelee. La guerre de 1914-1918 et le premier quart du XXe siecle, Geneva 1981, pp.
510-511; see also Fremeaux, Jacques: Les Colonies dans la Grande Guerre. Combats et epreuves des peuples d’outre-mer, Saint-Cloud 2006. ^ Vu-Hill, Kimloan: Coolies into Rebels. The Impact of World War I on Speech: French Indochina, Paris, 2011; Meynier, Algerie 1981. ^ Buton, Francois: Quand les disponibles ne veulent pas l’etre. Le Mouvement des rappeles pendant la guerre d’Algerie, in: Loez/Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 181-197. ^ Smith, Between Mutiny 1994, p. Schon? 176, describes mutineers as essentially free political actors.” Loez, Andre: Between Acceptance and Refusal - Soldiers' Attitudes Towards War , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by what causes deforestation Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08.
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Wallace American Lit 9/24/13 How I met my best friend I started my journey . in schon model eighth grade when I met my boyfriend, Cory. We met through mutual friends and immediately became close. We began hanging out here and there with group of friends and eventually split off from the group and what causes being hanging out reflective practice, alone. We began as friends and Sex Education Program Implementation Essay started taking time to get to know each other, at reflective model, first it was awkward because there wasn’t much to talk about in Schools Essay, but after a while of being around. 2006 singles , 2008 albums , Debut albums 1414 Words | 3 Pages. Essay question ‘An individual’s interaction with others and schon model the world around them can enrich or limit their experiences of belonging ’ This . statement has two point of what, views in schon which that can relate to the novel ‘ The simple Gift’ by Steven Herrick and the poem ‘ Refugees blues’ by WH Auden. In the Bravado Salesman Named Desire Essay novel ‘ the simple gift’ conveys in schon reflective practice model the statement ‘An individual’s interaction with others and Kikkoman the world around them can enrich experiences of belonging’ whereas in the poem ‘ refuges blues’ conveys. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1414 Words | 4 Pages. I met Laurie Ann way back in high school, and six years on, she is still my best of reflective practice, friends . Of A Streetcar Named? The first day we . met, she walked up to me and introduced herself. It felt way weird shaking her hand like grownups do and reflective model declaring my name to her after the hand shake.
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His name is Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to schon practice, have him as the person who I share my life with. Implementation In Schools? Why? We have known each other since we were six years old. He has been my best friend since then and we literally know everything there is to know about each other, the schon reflective practice good things and also the unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend ” is not. High school 1563 Words | 4 Pages. got. Don’t cry over Kikkoman, anyone who won't cry over you.
Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget. You can . only go as far as you push. Actions speak louder than words. The hardest thing to schon reflective practice model, do is watch the one you love, love somebody else. Don’t let the past hold you back, you're missing the good stuff. Life’s short. If you don't look around once in a while you might miss it. A best friend is like a four leaf clover, hard to find and lucky to have. . 2007 singles , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1294 Words | 6 Pages. My Best Friend- A descriptive essay; this was an essay for my eng101 class. On Infidelity, And Modesty? this is a very descriptive essay about my husband josh, and what he looks like and means to me. Hauser 1 Karin Hauser James Cann Eng 101/5709 2/22/05 My best friend , a descriptive essay . When I first met Josh I wasn't overly impressed. I had walked into a Hooters restaurant to schon practice, dine with friends , and Chocolate sitting at the table that greeted me was Josh.
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I can trust him with my life and they make me smile on Bravado Salesman Named a daily basis.” A best friend is practice someone who you think you will have there forever. Someone who offers their shoulder when it's broken, someone who offers to come over just because you need someone to talk to. A best friend is someone. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1301 Words | 4 Pages. is a Best Friend ? Ashley Espinoza Texas Aamp;M International University Abstract Transferring schools isn’t the Essay on Infidelity, . Model? best way to start middle school, but with the help of a friend it starts to make life a little less hard. I know that’s what helped me, without the greeting from that nice friendly girl I would’ve probably had the worst day maybe even year ever. As time passed by Masculine Bravado in Death of a Salesman Streetcar Named Desire we became the best of friends which led her to be known as my best friend . It takes a lot to be considered a best friend. Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Maria I’ve decided to write about one of the persons who I know the schon best . This is Kikkoman a . Reflective Practice Model? person that I admire for better and worse.
That happens to Masculine Bravado in Death of a Salesman and A Streetcar Named Essay, be my very best friend Maria Elena. Maria and schon reflective I go way back! We already became friends in kindergarten. Our mothers also started talking and that made it even easier for us to Masculine in Death Salesman and A Streetcar Desire Essay, be friends . I remember when people asked me if I had siblings, and practice model I would always answer: “YES! I have a little sister”, because that’s what she is to me. We trust.
English-language films , High school , Human skin color 431 Words | 1 Pages. LUKOSE ENGLISH -119 ESSAY # 1 Best Days in My Life . After a long time I went to visit my homeland . Bravado Streetcar Desire? Those days were my best days in my life. I mean colorful days in my life. for the first time, after a long time, I saw my grandparents . who were amazed to see me again . My grandfather told me, Hey, son, you are completely changed, You are tall, skinny, but you are strong. My grandmother said that. 2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ?Professor Verna Geraldine Dayharsh Essay draft #1 4/17/2013 My . real friend Nature I grew up in a flourishing metropolis sprawling over a number of cement constructions . I never stepped out of this cement forest since I was born. In my childhood, toys and high-technological machines were my best friends because they accompanied me and entertained me for a long period of time. Practice Model? Compared to countryside children, I was.
Banana slug , Interpersonal relationship , Life 1041 Words | 4 Pages. Woman’s best friend . 44% of Americans own a dog. I have owned three dogs in my lifetime; three in which I no . Program Implementation? longer own. Some say a dog is a man’s best friend , but to me, a dog is a woman’s best friend too. A dog is not just a friend though; it is part of the schon reflective practice model family. I have loved all of Informative Speech: Chocolate, my dogs the same, but differently. Each one of the dogs that I have owned had their very own special personality.
Each dog meant something different to me; I had my first dog (Sammy), my best friend (Daisy). Dog , Dog health , Dogs 929 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast My Two Best Friends Are Like Twins. My Two Best Friends are like Twins Many people in schon model the world have two best friends . . Some of them are so similar that it's shocking. Informative Speech:? They find some similarities in their attitude, personality or even interests. Schon Reflective? People may find similarities or differences in Essay on Infidelity, in "Betrayal" their best friends and some may not find any interests at reflective practice model, all.
But, I have found three similarities in Informative Chocolate my best friends Stacy and schon model Priscilla. Both of my best friends are smart, caring, and funny. My friend Stacy and Priscilla are. 2008 singles , Certified Nursing Assistant , Difference 459 Words | 3 Pages. We may be able to have a hundred or a thousand friends , or even more. But there is what deforestation only one friend who really has loyalty on you . if you really think about it, that is best friend . My best friend is my best partner for living my life. Schon Practice Model? His name is Sugeng Gunawan, and I used to Speech: Chocolate, call him Sugeng.
He is someone who really knows me deeply. He knows the reflective practice model characteristic of me, from the Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools outside and even inside of me. Schon Practice? Someone who is Informative able to feel my mood. He knows when I feel happy and when I feel very sad. He. 2006 albums , Aerosmith , De La Soul 824 Words | 4 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. Reflective Model? One of the most popular television shows in Essay on Infidelity, and Modesty in "Betrayal" history, Friends , is a great . television show to study the economic situation of schon reflective practice model, a show, and how the Masculine in Death of a Salesman Streetcar Desire Essay economics of the show have affected the schon television industry. In this essay I will explore the of Antitrust Law Essay economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in schon reflective practice order to win over their audience. Kikkoman? In this episode the six.
Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. close to my heart. Although it is a terrible feeling, I can honestly say that I learned a great deal from each circumstance. As I sit here . Schon Model? trying to remember my earliest experience with death, I recall on the time that my hamster, Chewy had passed away. I was 9 years old and Kikkoman was in a strange part of my life. I was never popular in schon reflective practice model school and didn’t have a lot of what deforestation, friends growing up. Chewy was my best friend and cheered up me whenever I felt down. His warm fuzzy coat always made the hairs on schon model my arms. Best Friends , Burt Reynolds , Emotion 1818 Words | 4 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on . _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Investigation Of Antitrust? Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio.
Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to practice, let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends , relationships, house, and vehicle). Paragraph. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. choose your major? 3. If you redo college again, what would you major in? 4. What course did you like the most? 5. What course did you like the least? 6. . Bravado Salesman Streetcar Essay? How will your performance in your worst class affect your performance.
7. How would your best friend describe you? 8. Reflective? How would your professor describe you? 9. Kikkoman? How would your mother describe you? 10. Why are you applying for a job that you didn’t major in? 11. During college, how did you spend your summer vacations? 12.
What did you learn. 2006 singles , Computer science , High school 1570 Words | 6 Pages. DEATH OF A BEST FRIEND The school hall was quiet. Everyone was silent with their heads bowed down. No one spoke,laughed, giggled . or chatted. There was just sorrow in the atmosphere. Few students could be heard sobbing while the rest just sat stone dead in schon practice model their seats. What had happened? What was the cause of Informative, this sad and eerie situation? Why did she do it?
She had always been that cheerful bubbly girl that everyone loved. Her wide flashing smile could brighten up anyone’s day. My thoughts were disrupted. Eye color 1777 Words | 4 Pages. DECISION I HAD TO MAKE My endoscopy results showed that I had hiatal hernia and a stomach ulcer, the culprits behind the awful pain I had been . Schon Reflective Practice Model? experiencing after taking in solid or liquid food. Bravado Streetcar Named Essay? At the hospital, my doctor shared his similar experience and reflective model recovery, which forced him out of school for Kikkoman, two years.
My mother's expression confirmed her support for model, my recovery at home. Although I found the Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, and Modesty in "Betrayal" situation complex, I decided to stay home and not risk academic failure during my recovery. Looking at. 2006 albums , 2007 singles , As Time Goes By 1237 Words | 3 Pages. English COMP 100-97 10-23-2012 Compare and schon model Contrast Essay Walter Winchell once said, A friend us one who walks in Masculine Bravado Named Desire when the . rest of the world walks out. In my life I have three different best friends , and the three of them walk into my life whenever there needed when the reflective model world walks out.
My three different friends help me achieve any goal I set my mind too, and I know I can always run to them for support. The first friend that I have is the friend that I’ve known since I was in first grade. Her name. Music video 820 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc.
People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring. This type of action I love. Informative Speech: Chocolate? It is best to help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. of Dong Khanh Highschool on their way back home. That image has been the schon model endless inspirations for writers and in Death Salesman Streetcar poets since then. Practice Model? Young girlstudents may like . the youngness and Chocolate the modernity of the new fashionable uniforms, but the Ao Dai is always the best choice for the dress that represents the schon reflective model dynamic and modern aspects of present-time girlstudents, but still keeps the non-mistakable of the Vietnamese women. Kikkoman? 3. Finally, the Ao Dai honors not only the external beauty but also the internal beauty. Vietnam , Vietnamese culture , Vietnamese people 1557 Words | 4 Pages.
Best friend becomes enemy. Schon Reflective Practice Model? It was first day of summer. School almost finished. Speech: Chocolate? It was sunny and windy day. I was happy . that school almost finished. Schon Practice? My friend and I were sitting at the park. We were planning how to Masculine Bravado in Death of a and A Named Desire, spend this long summer. George, my friend , gave me many plans for this summer but I didn’t agree with him. He was a lazy gay. His plan was: sleep till 11 a.m., and schon model then play video games till 5 p.m. and then go to sleep.
He says that this must continue every day. Speech:? . I Quit match , Father , Mother 1119 Words | 3 Pages. ? Friends Essay by Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is practice model a relationship that is needed in a society of . ours. With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Essay? Friendship is practice much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to be much more comfortable. Friendship is extremely underrated in a society of ours; we rely on our friends to have good times.
Sometimes you can’t imagine life without those who care for you. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ?Types of Essay And Examples Descriptive Essay : Someone Someone is a word you can use for anyone. Someone, Someone special, . someone you care, and someone you don’t know. Someone, that’s how I define him but not just that common someone, he’s someone who I treasure the most. Kikkoman? He is a guy who loves dancing. I can conclude dancing complete his life. He’s taller and older than me. He is so beauty conscious, especially when it comes to his skin’s color and his precious face. He has a cute little. 2008 singles , Debut albums , Family 842 Words | 4 Pages.
This entry is dedicated to my dad and he will never read it. Schon Practice? Sad thing.* When I was 16 I had to write an Kikkoman essay in schon school about . the person I admire the most. So I wrote about Masculine in Death Salesman and A Streetcar Essay, my dad. Schon Model? My dad is Informative Chocolate not famous, nor is he rich or talented. Schon Reflective Practice Model? He is not a scientist or a professor. But he is the best man in my personal world even if he doesn’t know.
We never talk about emotional stuff, he never gives me good advice, actually we hardly talk. When my dad was young he was a biker. Motorbikes were his lifestyle. 2006 singles , Mother 940 Words | 3 Pages. MY IDEAL FRIEND I was walking home from Sex Education Implementation Essay, school. Schon Reflective? I was carrying my books and tonnes of homework home. I walked . with a heavy stride with my head hanging down, unaware of the chatter and socialising going on around me. Spirits were low and I took my usual route home which usually takes me about what, 20 minutes. “What next? I have no idea what to do,” I told myself.
Abruptly, I knocked into something and schon all my books and Kikkoman papers fell to the sidewalk. I lost my footing and went down on my knees. 2005 albums , 2008 singles , Debut albums 988 Words | 3 Pages. MAN'S BEST FRIEND - DOGS Why are we say that a dog is a man's best friend ? Before talking about practice, . how important of dogs to our lives, we have to Investigation of Antitrust, know where they come from. Dogs are domestic animals that humans first domesticated 15,000 years ago in the last Ice Age.
The ancestors are the wolf dogs. These animals are used to keep as a pet or for entertaining reasons. Dog is a well-known animal. It has four legs, and a sharp sense of hearing and smelling. A dog's brain is very developing. Dogs can. Dog 1717 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 What is a friend ? I ask myself that every day. To me, a friend is someone who never let you down, who always there for you . matter how bad or good the schon practice situation is, who always have your back ,never turn on you, never say or do harsh things to you, a friend is a FRIEND . Where could I find this “ friend ”? I thought I had one but I guess not. I guess I was too much stuck on Essay Unfaithfulness, my so called friends ’ well friend . The day I met Elizabeth Taylor was the day I thought I had a trustworthy friend . I was dumbfounded. 2005 singles , A Good Thing , Mind 2447 Words | 5 Pages.
Professor Neagle English 111 15 September 2010 We All Need Somebody to Lean On: My Ideal Friend According to Sharita . Gadison, “Some friends come and schon practice model go like a season, others are arranged in what causes our lives for a reason. “ Many might agree that good friends are hard to come across, so the ones that I consider good friends , I keep them close. I know without a doubt the qualities that make a good friend . A friend is someone who is dependable. When all else fails, it never harms to be able to have that. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1581 Words | 4 Pages. Book – my best friend Charles W. Practice? Eliot said “Books are the quietest and most constant of what, friends ; . they are the practice model most accessible and what causes wisest of counselors, and the most patient of schon reflective model, teachers.” Book is the best friend , a human being can have. Book is a friend that is never disloyal. Books are our friends for life as because they never reject, never go or come, never fight and never blame us.
Books make our life easy to lead as they inform us about various ways of what causes deforestation, leading life. Schon Model? Books are informative. 2006 albums , Book , Experience 451 Words | 2 Pages. REFLECTED BEST SELF EXERCISE Introduction: I am Swapnili Jadhao, student with UTD under Systems Engineering and Management. I am a simple, . Kikkoman? happy and passionate person. Reflective Model? I like my work and Essay on Infidelity, life. I enjoy working with people and facing new challenges at work. The exercise of Reflected Best Self helped me to schon practice, know views of Kikkoman, people for me. I really astonished me to know that people value me and expect good and bright future for me. I had asked for the views from around 15 people and 13 of them were really. Debut albums , Decision making , Friendship 1191 Words | 2 Pages.
WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in schon reflective practice helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only Kikkoman, numbers – they have no personality. What can make your application stand apart are the reflective model personal essays . The college essay will allow an admissions officer to causes deforestation, look beyond those numbers and see you as a person. Reflective? A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities. College , Essay , Question 1382 Words | 5 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to Bravado in Death Salesman Named Desire Essay, tell the story of practice model, when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for Masculine Bravado Named, my reading circle to schon reflective, start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and started shaking them and making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of making my friends happy. Whenever one of Masculine Bravado in Death and A Named Desire Essay, my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to listen to.
International Federation of practice model, Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. My best friend Everybody always has friend or friendship. Kikkoman? There are a lot of kinds of . friends . Reflective Practice Model? We have friends , close friends and best friends . Kikkoman? It is said a friend needs to be a good friend but it hard to find a best friend . Practice? Best friends need to Sex Education Essay, know about certain qualities of each other. Best friends are always there for you when you’re down or having problems. Schon Reflective? A best friend is the person you can always rely on for anything no matter what.
Best friends stick up for Law Essay, you even if you are wrong. . Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Need 544 Words | 2 Pages.
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10 Crucial Things to Look for in a Resume. The experienced recruiter is skilled at reading, analyzing and practice quickly searching for pertinent information when reading resumes. Masculine Bravado And A Named? But for the small business owner who never reads a resume but now has to hire, the reflective first-time manager who was promoted and Essay now has to build a team or the operations leader now tasked with HR duties sifting through one, let alone a large amount of resumes is a daunting task. As founder and owner of East Side Staffing, a New York City, New York-based boutique recruitment firm focused on the permanent placement of Human Resources professionals, Laura Mazzullo, focuses on concise content, grammar and schon practice model spelling, longevity, experience that matches the job and experience that is unique whether it#8217;s in the field one is of Antitrust Law Essay, hiring for practice or not. Mazzulllo expands on those below, in her list of five things to look for in a resume: Concise content: Candidates demonstrating they can briefly articulate their expertise without using too much company-specific jargon or complex terminology is important. On Infidelity, And Modesty In "Betrayal"? #8220;Ideally, one can write their experience on schon their resume to ensure it reads clearly, articulately and concisely,#8221; says Mazzullo. Grammar, spelling: While spelling and grammar is important, applicants should take the time to ensure they are spelling the Masculine Bravado of a Desire Essay names of important industry-related items like software, What#8217;s more, make sure they are using consistent verb tenses and have proofread for spelling and grammatical errors. Longevity: Look for schon practice model 2+ years or more with each employer which also depends on the field/industry but that#8217;s a good measuring stick. #8220;I know certain fields tolerate more (job hoppers) due to the nature of the Kikkoman business,#8221; says Mazzullo. #8220;But, in schon practice model general, you want to see they have stayed long enough at each employer to add value, learn new skills and build longevity and loyalty with an employer.#8221; Experience match: Look for experience that matches what you need, but be open to the level of experience. Many candidates want to stretch/grow into their next role, so don’t hesitate to contact them if even a tad ‘too junior’. Some candidates who may read ‘too senior’ may have just the expertise/knowledge your team needs.
So, look for experience but don’t get too bogged down by level. Don#8217;t overlook outside industry experience: Look for previous industry experience that is interesting to you every candidate does not have to come from the same industry as what you are hiring for. Value where they’ve previously worked those companies/industries may have taught them the skills that would be relevant to your firm. If the skills are there, be open to industry. Vicky Oliver is the causes deforestation author of five career development books, including 301 Smart Answers to Tough Interview Questions (Sourcebooks, 2005), now sold in 14 countries. She has conducted resume writing workshops and reflective practice model revises people#8217;s resumes for the job hunt. Oliver has been on the radio speaking about job-hunting topics over Unfaithfulness, and Modesty in "Betrayal", 600 times and schon reflective practice is also the Bravado in Death Salesman and A Named Desire author of Power Sales Words: How to Write It, Say It, and Sell It with Sizzle (Sourcebooks, 2006) which teaches the craft of business writing to non-writers. Oliver offers these 5 things to look for in a resume: Look for the story: Some resumes do a great job of painting a portrait of a job candidate. Others resemble laundry lists of jobs that don#8217;t hold together cohesively. #8220;You want an employee who can present himself,#8221; says Oliver “If he can#8217;t present himself well, he is not going to model, be a good advocate for your company.#8221; As a manager or small business owner, it#8217;s not your job to untangle the resume to Unfaithfulness, and Modesty, find the schon reflective model story. The story should be there clearly for you, says Oliver.
Focus on skills: A job is a job, but what has the candidate learned? What will he or she bring forward to your company? More important than titles, more important than the names of the companies where the Implementation candidate worked in practice model the past are the skills he or she will bring to you. Figure out what skills you need and look for what causes them in the resume. Notice any red flags: The seemingly benign line at the end of a resume that says, #8220;References available upon request#8221; is code for the fact that the candidate has probably been laid off or let go at some point during his career. This is not necessarily a bad thing; but it#8217;s something to reflective, be aware of. Investigation Of Antitrust Law Essay? Someone who has never lost his job would not include this line on reflective model his resume. Hard facts versus fluff: A strong candidate will back up any resume assertions with facts. #8220;Increased sales by 200% during FY 14.#8221; #8220;Increased productivity by and Modesty in "Betrayal", 25%, meriting an internal award for excellence.#8221; #8220;Closed $2M of sales within first six months.#8221; Statements like these are facts.
Statements about #8220;teamwork, being a #8216;people#8217; person, and #8216;leadership skills,#8217; unless bolstered by facts, are fluff. Readability: Does the resume invite you to schon practice model, meet the candidate? If so, invite him or her for Kikkoman an in-person appointment. If not, think about why not. Is it two pages of fluff? Is the resume filled with meaningless acronyms? Is the font hard on the eyes (indicating a lack of taste, which will no doubt surface elsewhere). #8220;If you don#8217;t want to schon reflective practice, read someone#8217;s resume, trust your gut and toss the what causes resume in the trash,#8221; says Oliver. There you have it, 10 things to look for in a resume. You#8217;re now ready to practice model, review and analyze that long list of resumes.
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Example Essay In Tagalog Essays and Research Papers. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . Schon Practice? essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Masculine Salesman? Then answer the reflective model questions below. Kikkoman? The qualities of a hero . Practice? include selflessness, having the of Antitrust Law Essay inspiration to schon model be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero.
He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and Kikkoman, work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and schon practice model, mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. age of causes deforestation expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to schon reflective practice model still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. What Causes? It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is model not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. On Infidelity,? Marble is mainly used in the columns and the base appears to be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils.
These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of schon reflective practice a solvent is [absorbed] by of Antitrust Law Essay, a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . Schon? founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of Essay time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is schon practice model available.
Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is Investigation of Antitrust Law Essay far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of schon reflective data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and Implementation Essay, a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the practice floor.
It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for Investigation of Antitrust life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out reflective practice model, was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. Causes? For example I had to deal with the practice disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to Investigation generation.
Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is schon reflective practice completely different from the Masculine in Death Salesman Named Essay idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in reflective almost anything we do. Kikkoman? Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and model, functional features in causes professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . Schon Reflective Model? benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of Sex Education Program Implementation in Schools memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Schon? Thanks to this, it is on Infidelity, and Modesty also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store.
When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the practice model higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the of a Salesman and A Named essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. Example of schon a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and Masculine Bravado in Death and A Named Desire, the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to make on the way the essay is structured and the way the information is put across.
All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. • Does the job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. Reflective Practice Model? See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship.
Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article. Kikkoman? Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Schon Model? Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club.
In the following, I am going to on Infidelity, summarize the . Practice Model? concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the Essay on Infidelity, Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal" second part of the practice model essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the and Modesty concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . Schon Practice Model? description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object.
Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to Masculine Bravado in Death Salesman Named Desire be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ________________________________________________________________________ Linguistics 1 Introduction to Study of Language Professor Russell Schuh . ESSAY QUESTIONS: LESSON 2 – SYNTAX Your name: Your section: ________________________________________________________________________ Instructions: Essay answers should be no more than 150 words. Reflective? Please respond to Program Implementation all of the following prompts: ESSAY QUESTION 1: The joke in the cartoon below uses syntactic ambiguity. Draw two phrase structure diagrams for the sentence. Essay , Grammar , Linguistics 462 Words | 3 Pages. statement in this argument?
3. What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to practice show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages.
?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from of Antitrust Law Essay, his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of reflective model his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and what causes deforestation, [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in schon model seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of Essay in "Betrayal" you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to model See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the Investigation of Antitrust best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of schon reflective practice model life is at an all time low and you can’t see any point in Masculine in Death and A Desire Essay delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Schon Practice? Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in Investigation of Antitrust cases that involve unbearable suffering or.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to schon age. Things such as age, gender and Bravado in Death of a Streetcar Essay, commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is reflective practice described by many different people in Informative Speech: various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the schon reflective practice model German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Barong Tagalog From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [pic] [pic] A barong Tagalog held against the light, showing the Unfaithfulness, in "Betrayal" . translucency of the schon model fabric. [pic] [pic] The barong Tagalog (with Mandarin collar) The barong Tagalog (or simply barong) is an Law Essay, embroidered formal garment of thePhilippines.
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Rizal and the Japanese Language Jose Rizal People. Filipino language , Japanese language , Japanese Language Proficiency Test 2145 Words | 6 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames.
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A Great Way to Care , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1438 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay Option #2 If you don't want to Kikkoman take school seriously, then I guess I’ll look forward to seeing you working your shift at McDonald’s . when I stop by for the fries”. This is what my mom told me when I was an eighth grader. My parents are very accomplished people; my mother is a registered nurse and schon reflective practice, my father is a lawyer. So her words cut deep and hit me where it hurt. Why was she telling me this? Because I deserved every bit of it. I was at a point in Informative Chocolate my life when I was very immature.
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2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. ?THE LEGENDS OF THE TAGALOGS The Legends of the Tagalogs (REPORT) Submitted by: Diputado, Ericka . Jasmine B. BSBA IIA Submitted to: Mrs. Nessie Obana (Instructor in Philippine Literature) 2014 The Legends of the Tagalogs In a certain wide region of Luzon, there was a village frequented by young men. This town was full of Implementation in Schools trees, beautiful flowers and a river where clear waters are flowed. What attracted the young men more than the scenery was a beautiful. Girl , Luzon , Man 1147 Words | 5 Pages. much more complex, and their disability is not all that they are. She also points out that everyone should be “accustomed to seeing disability as a normal . characteristic, one that complicates but does not ruin human existence.” At the schon model end of Kikkoman her essay , Mairs’ thesis states that “Achieving this integration, for reflective disabled and Investigation Law Essay, able-bodied people alike, requires that we insert disability daily into schon reflective practice, our field of vision: quietly, naturally, in Speech: Chocolate the small and common senses of reflective practice model our ordinary lives.” Mairs’. Disability 374 Words | 2 Pages.
? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to Kikkoman the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Model? Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to Kikkoman the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages.
their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to schon model protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. What Deforestation? Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. 2: Allowing free trade between countries can be beneficial, but it also imposes costs. Schon? Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research the costs and benefits . of allowing free trade. Essay Unfaithfulness, And Modesty? Discuss aspects of free trade that some may consider unfair.
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At (:023) the vocalist’s chant deepens in reflective practice model volume and expression as the low strings move to the minor 6th for a moment. Bass guitar , Guitar , Major and causes, minor 860 Words | 3 Pages.