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Learning in Classroom Essay Sample. This paper will discuss and evaluate classroom learning strategies and Control, methodologies. The paper would elaborate experiences and modalities of various educationists and academicians in a pedagogical set up. It would also transpire how these renowned educational philosophers and legends acquire the best results from their empirical studies reflected in on Wilde's Comedy, their practical approach. My own experiences would also be included to give the study a subjective touch. Disruptive behaviour during class was addressed through implicit teacher acts such as pausing class instruction and to Gun Control Essays, making eye contact or moving in Comedy, closer proximity to the disruptive student. These preliminary classroom management strategies curtailed the inappropriate behaviour and formal school behaviour management policies were not needed.
The observed classrooms clearly achieved both the teacher’s and learners’ objectives, for information to be interesting and therefore engaged with by students. The question to be investigated within this research report is how was such a successful classroom established? Are there any theories or researches that suggest how the classroom environment may better support learners? The goal of a classroom management plan is to develop students’ respect for each other and to Gun, create a controlled learning environment. Time management and organization of the classroom are major themes in establishing a well behaved classroom. Monitoring is a preventive tool used to quickly deal with problem before they escalate. When a problem arises, working with the student to correct a situation maintains respect and a positive classroom atmosphere.
Classroom management is an aid to provide an open, respectful, and equal learning experience for every student. Rationale of the study. Beaconhouse School System (BSS) emphasises imparting quality education. In Pakistani set up, it has been observed that most of the parents are still illiterate. They themselves don’t know how to grapple with the gigantic issue of their children’s comprehension and learning management.
Students are the Marriage Essay future of Pakistan and key to prospective progress and development. Say Yes To Gun Control Essays! BSS offers maximum opportunity to all its students to cope with the issue of learning management. Teachers are the focal point in this respect. This study would highlight as how to reduce the difficulty level of this problem. When dealing with classroom management it is important to consider the level and type of education being taught. Middle school student behave differently than high school students, and of cell, gifted students behave differently than “exceptional” students. For many teachers, misbehaviour is the most difficult problem to Say Yes deal with.
It disrupts their lesson plans along with other students’ learning. In The Synergetic Classroom, C. M. Charles explains some reasons why students misbehave in the classroom. Some students like to see how far they can push and what they can get away with. Function! Others like to Control Essays mimic each other, especially when it involves disapproved behaviour. Most students crave attention and if necessary, they will misbehave to get it.
Few students are egocentric and believe anything they do is all right, including retaliation when they don’t get their way. All these behaviours can be eliminated, modified, or avoided in the classroom. Avoiding, or preventing these disruptions is the primary goal in classroom management. To set the stage, there are several aspects of classroom management that reduce the chances of Gold Can Stay Marriage In A House, misbehaviour. Say Yes! In her book, The Caring Teacher’s Guide to Discipline, Marilyn Gootman explains a model of organization to as i wandered lonely avoid discipline hassles. By organizing space and scheduling time, students will know where things belong and Say Yes Essays, what to do. The Context Of Business Karakowsky! She explains if students know where things belong, they will put them there. When they know what to do, they are more likely to do it. By developing a daily routine, the students get to Say Yes Control Essays reinforce the appropriate behaviour on a daily basis. Classroom meetings can set the stage for cooperative learning and discuss classroom policies. The rules and policies should be laid out by the teacher at the beginning.
If the students are mature enough, this process may be democratic. The rules, policies, and consequences of breaking them should then be understood and agreed upon by entire class. Part of the preventive management phase is maintaining the appropriate behaviour. Now that the grounds are set for a well-behaved and productive classroom, the teacher must monitor and maintain appropriate classroom activity. Edmund Emmer explains in on Wilde's, Classroom Management for Secondary Teachers, to be an Control Essays, effective monitor of classroom behaviour, you must know what to of cell look for. He explains the two main things to look for are; the students’ involvements in Say Yes Control, learning activities, and the students’ compliances with the classroom rules and Social Support, procedures.
I believe a major tool in maintaining a cooperative classroom is to provide positive reinforcement when students display appropriate behaviour. This may come in the form of to Gun, praise or rewards. This is psychological method is known as “shaping.” This provides a positive learning environment where the teacher works with, rather than against, the students’ nature. When misbehaviour does become a disruption to the class, then it must be dealt with quickly and consistently. Several method of discipline exists, from parataxis, old-fashioned methods of intimidation and punishment to more modern “softer” approaches. In his essay, The Classroom Management Plan, Dave Wiggins explains the steps in dealing with misbehaviour respectfully in a secondary classroom environment.
The first step would be to use non-verbal communication, such as facial gestures to the misbehaving student, to prevent further escalation of the problem. If the student’s attention is not received, then a verbal reminder of the rules and policies may be all that is needed to Say Yes to Gun Control stop the misbehaviour. Wiggins explains when dealing with attention-seeking students, it is best if the teacher can redirect the student’s behaviour, and attempt to give the student attention when he is not demanding it. This method encourages students to seek motivation from the context pdf, within, instead of depending on attention from without. He warns if a teacher ignores an attention-seeking student, the misbehaviour usually escalates to a level which eventually cannot be ignored. As with any punishment method, it is important that the consequences be applied consistently. When all else fails, the student should be removed from the classroom and Say Yes to Gun Control, dealt with unconventionally. The term management is function of cell often associated with the Say Yes to Gun Essays supervision and control of wandered, others, usually within context of the Say Yes Control Essays business world (Dinsmore, 2003, p.6). This association is also evident within education, whereby classroom management is commonly associated with the control and regulation of students within the classroom (Porter, 2000, p.3).
Clearly this definition of classroom management is flawed as it only considers the define management of student behaviour, not the causes of such behaviour, teaching strategies used or the physical environment in which learning occurs. Krause, Bochner and Duchesne (2003) define classroom management as “the planning, organisation and control of learners, the learning process and the classroom environment to create and maintain an Say Yes, effective learning experience” (p. 374). This definition incorporates not only student behaviour but the context in which this behaviour occurs, including the teaching strategies used, classroom activities, physical space and Nothing Gold and In A House Essay, atmosphere of the classroom and participants’ attitudes (Krause et al. Control Essays! 2003, p.374). Classroom management may also incorporate the teacher’s beliefs and values, the define physical environment of the classroom, the amount of teacher preparation and the ways in Control, which the parataxis lesson is presented (Dinmore, 2003, p.6). Dinmore’s (2003) definition of classroom management is similar to Krause et al., however emphasising more implicit planning such as teacher preparation, underlying beliefs and values held and class atmosphere. These factors would consequently set the framework for the types of teacher instruction and class activities able to occur, laying the groundwork for the planning and control of learners described by Krause et al. To effectively manage a classroom, a teacher must incorporate teaching strategies and behaviour management approaches along with additional environmental strategies to create a supportive learning environment.
Depending on the beliefs and values of the teacher, how the classroom is managed can exist within a spectrum of models given by Krause et al. Say Yes Control! (2003), ranging from high teacher responsibility and of business pdf, structure to low teacher intervention and high student autonomy and responsibility (pp. Say Yes To Gun Control Essays! 381-390). Wolfgang (as cited in Krause et al, 2003) termed the degrees of teacher-student authority as ‘interventionist’, ‘interactive’ and ‘non-interventionist’ to function nucleus display a spectrum of classroom management models with the Say Yes Control Essays emphasis on types of parataxis, behaviour management and student responsibility (p. 381). The interventionist teacher exercises a high amount of control over student behaviour and classroom structure as development is seen as an outcome of external factors (Krause et al. 2003, p.282). This theory incorporates responsibility training utilising an incentive system to promote appropriate behaviours, high levels of body language and teacher proximity (Krause et al.
2003, pp.282-283). Dinsmore (2003) clearly agrees with the interventionist model of classroom management. Her research findings concluded that seventy-six percent of the students responded yes when asked if they were more likely to Essays be on-task during direct instruction if the parataxis teacher was in close proximity (p.13). From this she concluded, “This would seem to support providing whole class instruction in a community circle setting because the students are closer to the teacher” (Dinsmore, 2003, p.13). To Gun Control Essays! The interventionist approach to classroom management however does not accommodate all requirements of the and Doll's Essay Professional Standards for Teachers (2003). These standards state teachers are obligated to to Gun Essays implement classroom management strategies that enable students to learn to Support Essay take responsibility for their own behaviour. This approach to classroom management is inefficient in teaching students to become responsible for their own actions by Control attributing control and consequences to the teacher. Dinsmore may have alternatively concluded that students where more on task when instructed in a community circle due to the close relationship with their peers if she had observed an interactive model of classroom management.
The interactive teacher believes in of cell, a high degree of student autonomy and responsibility for students’ actions as their development is a product of interaction between internal and external factors (Krause et al. Say Yes To Gun Essays! 2003, p.384). Unlike the interventionist, this approach attempts to understand student behaviour and attribute responsibility to the student for consequences. (Krause et al. 2003, p.385). Norris (2003) presents an interactive approach to classroom management, emphasising that social and emotional learning teaches students valuable self-regulatory and social skills, effectively reducing negative peer relations and improving learning by increased academic achievement (p. Marriage Doll's House! 313). An important point Norris (2003) makes about this approach to classroom management is its suitability to the diverse classroom (p. 318). Control Essays! As the define interactive model of Say Yes Control Essays, management depicts development as occurring through interaction between internal and lonely as a cloud, external factors, a sense of belonging is created by positive peer relations, irrespective of cultural background (p.318). An unknown author, (The Teaching Professor, 2004) also recommends an interactive approach to classroom management, advising that warm and interpersonally sensitive communication, a shared course framework and the establishment of learning communities all prevent classroom disruptions that hinder effective learning (p.6).
According to Krause et al (2003), Dreikurs and Balson argued that children have a basic need to belong, and in order to achieve this, human behaviour is directed towards achieving social recognition. Similarly, students disrupt classes less when they know and care about other students in the class. Faculty regularly underestimate the power of peer pressure. Similarly, the Non-interventionist teacher believes development will occur naturally, enabling the Say Yes to Gun Essays teacher to become a facilitator, helping students to become more responsible for their own behaviour (Krause et al. 2003, pp.387-289). Boekaerts’ (2002) work on self-regulated learning seems to emulate this model of classroom management, arguing “Students strive to obtain, retain, foster and protect the goals they value. Personal goals are part of their theory of self, and a key to our understanding of their adaptation system” (pp. Define! 595-596) Boekaerts (2002) also refers to Say Yes to Gun more traditional forms of classroom management as described in the interventionist model where “students are cognitively, emotionally and socially dependent on their teachers to formulate the learning goals” (p.594). The non-interventionist model, as detailed by Wolfgang, works on student self-regulation and Media Essay, consequently emphasises student responsibility for learning and the role of the teacher to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays facilitate and model appropriate behaviours and Marriage House, techniques. Theoretical Approaches towards Classroom Management.
Theoretical approaches to classroom management describing the balance of power between student and teacher are not the only variables to to Gun Control be analysed when managing a learning environment. Dinsmore (2004) investigates how the overall atmosphere of the classroom affects student behaviour, “there is define parataxis a significant correlation between on-task behaviour and a comfortable atmosphere. Eighty-one percent of students surveyed indicated that they are more likely to be on-task if the classroom has an to Gun Essays, inviting and comfortable atmosphere” (p.21). On Wilde's Dramatic! Although Dinsmore (2004) utilised plants, soft lighting and soft music (pp. 14-19) within her study, Killen (2003) recommends that decorating the space with posters, students’ work or models creates a visually stimulating learning environment and Say Yes to Gun Control, creates a sense of pride amongst students involved in of business karakowsky pdf, decorating the classroom (p.7). Killen (2003) also proposes the role of music in creating a safe, comfortable and supportive environment (p.7).
Educational Investigation and Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, Academic Reflection. A supportive school environment is one which aims to maximise the educational opportunities and outcomes for all students. According to Student Management Policy within this manual, supportive school learning environments are to be implemented to provide an environment that is characterised by non-violent, non-coercive and non-discriminatory practices and quality interpersonal relationships, leadership, organisation, physical environments and teaching and learning strategies. It must be required that all schools should implement fair and equitable classroom management strategies that maximise student development, both cognitively and socially. Teachers should create safe learning environments that are based on mutual trust and define parataxis, respect and Control, that provide social support for student achievement. The aim and objective should be to provide learning environments in which students have responsibility for their own learning and implement classroom management strategies that enable students to learn to take responsibility for their own behaviour. A safe and supportive learning environment must be established for on Wilde's Dramatic, all learners and that classroom management practices must allow students to take responsibility for their behaviour. The core of classroom management can therefore be seen to incorporate the planning, organisation and control of learners, the learning process and the classroom environment to Say Yes Control Essays create and maintain an effective learning experience as stated by Krause et al. (2003, p.374).
A thorough classroom management approach must be developed as stipulated by the Professional Standards for Teachers, and should investigate modes of classroom management in Essay on Wilde's Comedy, terms of to Gun Control Essays, student autonomy and attention to the physical and intangible qualities of the general learning environment to ensure learners are actively engaged. Consequently, if a classroom is effectively managed, learning outcomes are maximised. Theories and research of classroom management reviewed above were evident within the observed classroom. Wolfgang (as cited in on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, Krause et al. Essays! 2003) describes the continuum of models utilised within classroom management, ranging from the high teacher control interventionist to the socially constructed interactive classroom management, and finally the non-interventionist model of high student responsibility (p.282). Within practice, the boundaries between these approaches are highly fluid, with classroom management practices observed from both interventionist and interactive models, but with little evidence of the non-interventionist approach being used. Interventionist techniques such as teacher proximity were observed in the classroom, and the physical space of furniture was arranged in an ‘L’ shape to enable increased teacher mobility. As regards to this with the findings of Dinsmore (2003) where student on as i wandered, task behaviour was positively correlated to the closeness of the teacher (p. 13). However, not all classroom management techniques demonstrated the same degree of intervention.
Like the interactive model (Krause et al., 2003), the observed teacher investigated the causes of Say Yes Control Essays, disruptive or disengaging behaviour in a sensitive and caring manner in private, while at the same time attributing personal responsibility to a student’s actions. Positive peer relationships were also encouraged within the as i observed classroom, positively affecting the overall tone of the classroom environment, allowing maximum learning to occur. This emulates Norris’ (2003) findings that social and Essays, emotional learning helps establish a positive classroom atmosphere, with all students feeling respected and valued (pp. 313-314). The movement between the nucleus interventionist and interaction strategies could also be explained by the development stage of the students. Due to their age and relative maturity in the ninth grade, implementing the non-interventionist approach may not have maximised learning, as students at this stage, may still require much support to be fully self-regulating in their behaviour, although this may be within their zone of proximal development if appropriate scaffolding is provided (Krause et al., 2003, pp.63-65). The classroom atmosphere was also observed and appeared to be a large factor in the classroom management strategy. Much in line with the findings of Dinsmore (2004) and Killen (2003), student work was displayed on the walls of the room creating an intimate atmosphere for learning. Say Yes To Gun! Natural lighting and nucleus, a high degree of natural airflow existed within the classroom, with floor to ceiling windows.
This created a positive atmosphere, encouraging students to engage in to Gun Essays, classroom activities through aesthetically pleasing surroundings. As stated previously, students within the observed classroom presented little inappropriate behaviour and enjoyed the learning experiences conducted within the Essay classroom environment. In addition to the above approaches used, the teacher observed also organised classroom management according to the requirements of the Queensland Department of Say Yes Control Essays, Education policies and professional teacher’s standards. As A Cloud! The environment was safe and equitable to all learners and Say Yes, encouraged positive social development amongst peers and teacher through mutual respect for each individual’s right to parataxis learn. This was also established through the high teacher-student connectedness that occurred in private meetings outside class time to overcome a specific learning or behavioural issue. Teaching strategies used enhanced student responsibility to choose their actions and supported learning by relating subject material to to Gun Control Essays real life experiences of students. This teaching strategy encouraged student engagement and interest in the topic, whilst simultaneously demonstrating the expectations of appropriate and respectful behaviour. Classroom management observed was seen to address the educational applications of a supportive learning environment as required by Education Queensland. Best practice could perhaps further incorporate group work into learning experiences, as per the interaction modal of classroom management. This would increase student’s social development and build valuable team work skills needed in society. Classroom management is therefore a complex issue, requiring a firm knowledge of behavioural management issues, teaching strategies and how learning is best constructed.
The physical environment must also be utilised to define maximise student comfort. The level of student autonomy and responsibility must also be considered in addition to educational outcomes required to be developed other than curriculum comprehension. The appropriate level of management should than be implemented to ensure a safe, supportive and Say Yes to Gun, equitable learning environment, which maximises learning through student engagement and Nothing and Marriage Doll's House Essay, participation. Behaviour management refers to the actions and strategies of teachers to prevent and respond to inappropriate behaviour of students as well as to enhance self discipline among students. (Walker, J.E. and Shea, T.M, 1999 pg7) Inappropriate behaviour in classrooms may refer to students ‘fighting, swearing, disrupting class activities for no reason, displaying loud and disorderly conduct and inept or misuse of equipment.’ (Walker, J.E. and Shea, T.M, 1999 pg 10) This kind of negative behaviour can cause distress, chaos and disruptions in Control, learning especially for those who are keen to enjoy the learning. Doll's Essay! (Walker, J.E. and Shea, T.M, 1999 pg 10) Hence, it is fundamental that teachers develop an appropriate framework to manage the Say Yes Essays student’s behaviour. Can Stay And! This is Control as the way in which behaviour is managed by of cell teachers has a major influence on how the students will behave in the future. According to research, being able to successfully manage the behaviour of students in the early years ensures good academic learning to to Gun Essays occur as there is a relationship between intellectual outcomes and behaviour. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 108) There are three reasons for Essay on Wilde's Comedy, this. The first is that a student who is responsible would adhere to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays certain student requirements such as paying attention and completing work on time. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 108)
These are qualities fundamental to great academic achievement. Secondly, students who behave well will develop positive interactions with teachers and their peers. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 108) Having a good relationship with the teacher will enhance a student’s learning process as teachers seem to give less attention to function nucleus students who misbehave.( McInerney, D, 1998 pg 108) Furthermore, a strong rapport among peers, especially peers who value education augments students’ motivation to achieve. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 108) Thirdly, students who are motivated to behave in an appropriate and socially responsible manner will be motivated to engage well in their academic work. Control Essays! (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 109) Instilling discipline and good learning skills in students is also essential. These lifelong skills which when imbibed at Nothing Can Stay Marriage In A House Essay, an early age will help the Say Yes to Gun students to become good citizens in the future who will be disciplined in function of cell nucleus, their working and adult life. Furthermore, having effective behaviour management strategies in place will result in a classroom environment that is conducive to to Gun Control learning and development as well as result in students understanding and define, developing appropriate behaviour. Hence, teachers need to be aware of a range of strategies and skills for responding to students’ inappropriate behaviour and managing their behaviour in the classroom. Firstly, teachers need to to Gun Control Essays realise the cause of misbehaviour among the students in Essay on Wilde's, the classroom.
There may be a few reasons as to why misbehaviour may occur. Misbehaviour and discipline problems tend to occur when students are not engaged in Say Yes Essays, activities that are absorbing or interesting.( McInerney, D, 1998 pg 112) Students may also find tasks given to them either too hard or too easy hence not allowing them to achieve success. All this may lead to attention seeking through disruptive behaviour. Aside from poor quality teaching, students may have social and emotional problems such as inconsistent parenting, poverty, emotional or physical abuse, poor self esteem which could also lead to misbehaviour in Dramatic, classroom. . Say Yes Control Essays! (Walker, J.E. and Shea, T.M, 1999 pg25) Other factors may include students’ rebelliousness or students not liking or being comfortable with their classmates. . (Walker, J.E. and Shea, T.M, 1999 pg25) According to Dreikurs, misbehaviour among students is usually a need for recognition and attention. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 125) As there are such varied causes for misbehaviour, it is vital that teachers analyse the karakowsky pdf causes of the behaviour of their students so as to provide them with helpful strategies and support to to Gun Essays improve their behaviour. This analysis should be done by having a positive and interactive relationship with the students. (Charles, C, 1996, pg 206) Teachers should also provide personal attention towards all students to acknowledge and nucleus, encourage their efforts. (Charles, C, 1996, pg 207) Teachers should also create a sense of togetherness in the classroom so that students feel at ease with one another and the teacher.
Communication regularly and clearly with parents of students is also extremely essential to bring in parental support into the classroom. (Charles, C, 1996, pg 208) In this way, an atmosphere that is supportive, pleasant, encouraging and boosting self confidence as well as being non-threatening will be created. This positive atmosphere will allow teachers to better understand their students as well as the causes of their misbehaviour thus helping the teachers to implement fitting consequences and Say Yes to Gun Essays, strategies in managing their behaviour. Apart from understanding the root cause of the student’s misbehaviour, teachers should also develop a framework of rules, routines and consequences from the onset of the Gold Doll's House year. The rules should be fair and to Gun Control Essays, equal towards all the students. Teachers should teach the students rules by of cell demonstrating them clearly with concise explanations and Say Yes to Gun, role modelling suitable behaviour. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 110) This behaviour should then be practised and positive feedback should be given to students when they practice it. . (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 110) These rules should be guidelines of appropriate behaviour that the teacher expects whilst in the classroom and usually depends on the individual teacher.
Examples of rules in the classroom could include “sitting quietly and listening intently when the teacher is talking” or “participating in a group discussion in an apt manner by contributing well and not fighting or speaking rudely to one another”. Teachers should intervene immediately if they notice misbehaviour in the classroom that is against the guidelines established occurring. Of Cell! This technique is “withitness” whereby the teachers are always aware of what is going on in the classroom. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 215) This will allow the misbehaviour to be corrected immediately and teachers could decide based on their guidelines if they want to warn the student or provide the to Gun Essays student with a consequence. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 215) Consequences should also be applied with equality to all students and in a calm manner so that students realise that they were misbehaving and understand that their misbehaviour is against the guidelines established. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 115) A teacher should be firm but fair. Moreover, a good technique to follow if a student has broken a rule is to Social Support through Essay help a student evaluate his/her misbehaviour and to provide support to to Gun Control help the student improve upon their behaviour. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 122) An example of this is to confront a student who has misbehaved by asking him/her to explain their misbehaviour to bring out the Gold Can Stay Doll's House cause of the misbehaviour. Say Yes Essays! (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 122) After finding out the cloud cause, the teacher should establish with the student if his/her misbehaviour is against to Gun Essays the rules established in the classroom. If so, teachers should encourage the student to find an alternative of their behaviour or to suggest a consequence that is karakowsky pdf fair to the student. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 122) This process will enable the students to understand where and why they went wrong.
This technique is called “reality therapy” and Essays, is recommended by Glasser. (McInerney, D, 1998 pg 122) This is a practical approach that enables a student to realise their misbehaviour immediately as well as provide them with alternatives of misbehaviour to handling a similar situation. Teachers should be continuously involved in the process of helping students correct their misbehaviour so that they are aware of the Nothing and In A misbehaviour and so that discipline is instilled in them. The Canter model of Say Yes to Gun Control, assertively taking charge is based off of observing not only Social Support Media classroom management skills of Say Yes to Gun, teachers, but also how students react to those teachers using different techniques. Assertive Discipline is a direct and positive approach making it possible for the teacher to teach and the students to learn. Essay Comedy! It is Control Essays based off of these principles” (Canter 1993)
Teachers should insist on responsible behaviour. When teachers fail, it is typically due to poor class control. They cannot teach and Support through Media, the kids are denied the opportunity to Control learn. Many teachers believe that firm control is stifling and inhumane. The needs and rights of students and teachers are met with a clear discipline plan that the teacher clearly states. This plan must be consistently applied and have fair consequences that look at the best interest of the child. When going with an assertive discipline plan, a teacher must not only teach the expectations, but must also be persistent in stating goals and expectations. Canter believes that there are a few steps to Marriage In A assertive discipline. To Gun Essays! (Canter 1993) They are:
Recognize and remove roadblocks to assertive discipline. Practice the use of assertive response styles. Learn to parataxis set limits. Follow through on limits. Implement a system of positive assertions. By following these five steps, the students will not only respond better to the teacher, but the class will work together more uniformly and stress on the good or positives that are being done. B.F.
Skinner tends to Say Yes to Gun Control agree with Canter’s ideas in that in order for the students to learn must feel that they are in a non-threatening environment. Skinner goes on the premise that it is in human nature to avoid situations that are adverse. So in other words, a person would tend to Gold Can Stay and Marriage In A Doll's House Essay shy away from doing something that is wrong just because it is intrinsically wrong for Say Yes Control Essays, them and Essay on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, they do not want to Say Yes deal with the harsh consequences. While reading on Skinner, he also tends to believe that when someone is put into an unfavourable situation, they become aggressive and defensive. (Noll 37) With this assertion, Skinner writes, “A person escapes from define, or avoids aversive treatment by behaving in ways which reinforce those who treated him aversively until he did so”. Canter’s philosophy and Skinners are not far from each other in that both agree that student’s behaviour and learning is better when they are working in conditions that are comfortable and to Gun, encouraging. Discipline, Learning and Class Management. Discipline is function nucleus more than keeping a group of children or young people quiet while being talked to. Preserving good behaviour is certainly one aspect to discipline, for learning it in an atmosphere of confusion is difficult.
Children have to learn to conform to the rules of behaviour needed in a classroom. However, discipline should be described as ongoing, proactive set of behaviours used to create a cooperative environment, which minimizes the likelihood of negative, disruptive behaviour. Teachers have the right to ask for a quiet class, keep the students in their seats, and have the right to discipline them if they do not cooperate. In order for a teacher to have his or her needs met, they can influence the behaviour of the children. Say Yes! Until the past decade, students and parents looked at as i lonely, the teacher as the main person in the classroom. The teacher, simply because of their role status, had respect and authority. Today, a teacher has to earn the respect of both the students and their parents. A teacher’s basic techniques of influence, or discipline, is no longer as effective as getting the Say Yes desired results.
The teacher cannot rely on the strong support of the parents anymore. Many parents are openly questioning, the education that their children are receiving, and do not feel they want to support the Essay on Wilde's Dramatic needs of their child’s teachers. To Gun! Teachers cannot get their needs met in parataxis, a classroom unless they have an effective method of discipline in which they thoroughly understand and comfortable utilize. Review of Own Practice. In my own student teaching experience, I have found that by paying attention to the good, and ignoring the bad, works very well to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays an extent. This is where I have found Canter to be outstanding. In his books and workbooks he gives ideas that help get a teacher get on task as to what he/she should be doing to promote an assertive discipline atmosphere. Function Of Cell Nucleus! I have noticed that Canter stresses how important it is for parents to be informed on what the classroom rules and procedures are and also encourages teachers to write home or phone home to tell them good things about their child. Canter also thinks that it is important to maintain logs and records of student’s behaviours and also gives many examples of good worksheets that help keep track of Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, those behaviours. At the Nothing Can Stay Marriage Doll's House Middle School, I have to send out at least 6 postcards weekly to parents telling them of their son or daughters good attributes. By doing this, the parent starts to Say Yes Control realize that the teacher is Essay not an enemy rather a team member who recognizes and understands that all students, no matter how “bad,” have some good in them.
I remember what a teacher taught me in Plainfield, “For every one bad thing you say to a parent, you should have 3 positives to say as well.” Many times I have pondered the ideas of management and control in the classroom and with there being so many things to think of, it seems to me that the easiest way to deal with management is to create a skeleton plan, introduce it to the classes and then add on and fill in the skeleton plan as your classes need it. With the Say Yes Control experiences I have thus far, it seems that overwhelmingly positive reinforcement is the overriding theme in schools with regards to discipline codes, and with teachers and their rules. I believe that positive reinforcement helps the students to be independent and wise as to what they are expected to on Wilde's Comedy do, and Say Yes Control, also gives the proper attention to the students who are working well and doing what they are suppose to as i lonely cloud do. Planning is essential to teaching well. Lesson planning is second nature to teachers. Lesson plans are part of a professional routine, and are done almost automatically when the need arises. However, planning for discipline is an Control, entirely different story. The majority of teachers has learned or has been exposed to the steps involved in planning discipline programs, especially those to be used specifically with disruptive students. Because of teachers’ frustrations, all we often hear is as i wandered lonely as a cloud their complaining about how difficult the students really are. Such complaining may help to relieve the strain of dealing with difficult students, but it in no way helps to Say Yes Control solve the problem.
Discipline planning will structure and parataxis, guide classroom management efforts the to Gun same as lesson planning for academic efforts. Discipline plans are important and helpful to all teachers. Discipline planning is the systematic applications of the assertive principles the teacher exhibits. It involves focusing your attention on any existing or potential discipline problems you may have. These discipline problems may involve an individual student, or a group of students, or an entire class. Essay Comedy! Having good discipline enables the teacher to deal assertively with their students. He or she will know how to maximize their potential influence to get their needs met.
The assertive teacher recognizes the fact that he or she has wants and needs and has the Say Yes to Gun Control right to get them met in the classroom. A teacher should be aware that a limit setting response must be delivered as effective a manner as possible. Eye contact is very important when trying to get a point made. Whenever necessary, the teacher plans how to back up their limit setting statement with appropriate consequences. This is done in order to maximize the influence that his or her response can have on the behaviour of the child.
Whenever required, teachers should be prepared to back up their words with consequences in order to as a cloud motivate the behaviour of more difficult children. He or she is Say Yes to Gun Control aware some children need more support than others and is prepared to give that child as much as they can. The children learn to karakowsky trust and Say Yes to Gun Control, respect an assertive teacher. Support Through! The children clearly know the parameters of Control Essays, acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Function Nucleus! This gives them an opportunity to choose how they want to Say Yes Control Essays behave while knowing fully what the consequences will be for on Wilde's Dramatic, their behaviours. This does not mean that every child will like an assertive teacher, and does not mean that every child will behave. Some children may still decide not behave for any reason. All that an Say Yes Essays, assertive teacher can do by his or her behaviour is try to establish an atmosphere where he or she maximizes the potential for nucleus, a positive teacher – child relationship. The major area where being an Say Yes, assertive teacher helps a child is when the student has special needs or problems. This, when a teacher needs to step things up a notch and become more assertive.
Some teachers may lose track of their assertive potential, but they have to teach the the context of business karakowsky child how to behave in the appropriate manner. Control Essays! One problem area where a child needs assertive discipline is when he or she is confronted with peer pressure. This is when the student’s fellow peers force him or her to do something. Confronting the of cell nucleus child and Say Yes to Gun Essays, telling him what he or she is doing can solve this problem. Function Of Cell Nucleus! This problem can also be solved by giving out a punishment like, writing on the chalkboard or may be standing in the corner with his or her back turned to the rest of the Say Yes class.
If all else fails, the teacher may want to call the child’s home and plan a conference with the student’s parents. Though most teachers feel threatened and overwhelmed by parents, especially if they are pushy or manipulative, they need to take a stand and thoroughly explain the situation going on with their child. The teacher has to be assertive with the parents and the child. The teacher should not down grade the problems they are having with their child. On Wilde's Comedy! Instead they should tell the Say Yes Control Essays parents the way things are. Support Through! The teacher should let the parents know that they need their cooperation to to Gun discipline the child at home for his tantrum. If the Nothing Doll's Essay teacher does not tell the parents what they truly feel then the child’s tantrum will be even worse the next time.
The corner stone of assertive discipline is the potential positive influence teachers can have on the behaviour of their students. Say Yes To Gun! When teachers accept the consequences of their potential influence, they accept the consequences of their potential influence they accept the responsibility to choose, or not to choose, to utilize this potential for the best interest of both themselves and the students. Assertive teachers recognize the responsibilities they have for the children. They know they cannot assert themselves and get their needs and the children needs met. They know they can have the define parataxis impact on their classrooms if they choose to do so. Relationship building-the key to minimizing discipline problems-is a process. Encourage parent, community and staff support through a range of measures, beginning with their involvement in the creation of the code.
The teacher should use clear and concise language with specific examples of all behaviours that will result in disciplinary action and the specific punishments that will be administered for to Gun Control Essays, infractions of the rules. Consequences for even minor misbehaviours and increased punishments required for repeat offences. Children learn best from what actually happens, not from what is said to them. Teaching children good behaviours is more than telling them what to do. Children will test limits. They will whine and argue to function nucleus find out how you react. If these negative behaviours are rewarded (the children get what they want), they will use the negative behaviours again.
By being an assertive teacher, you can prevent children from going outside the limits and promote good behaviour and education to their limits. In conclusion, teachers should strive to create an atmosphere in to Gun Essays, the classroom that is favourable to learning by maintaining a facilitating relationship with the students, establishing a reasonable framework of rules and consequences and finally, providing students with a curriculum that is not only motivating, but also appealing. The above mentioned techniques will allow teachers to understand the cause of misbehaviour in the classroom as well as to help curb it. This will be extremely beneficial to all the students as they will be provided with an environment that maximises their full potential in their learning and Essay on Wilde's Dramatic, development and motivates them to Say Yes succeed and achieve their goals. Apart from function of cell, establishing a framework of rules and consequences, teachers should also establish a routine and to Gun, an appealing curriculum in the classroom. This will help prevent boredom among the students. The classroom routine should be established at the beginning of the year and students should be made aware of it.
The routine should include smooth transitions among lessons with a prompt beginning and an appropriate concluding procedure. The learning curriculum should provide activities that are creative and pdf, innovative so that students are kept engaged and motivated to learn. Activities should also have objectives and goals that are catered to the individual students’ learning and development so that all students are occupied and Control Essays, enjoy their tasks. Activities should also be pitched at the different levels of ability of the Social Support through Essay students as well as have a holistic approach encompassing the physical, social, emotional and educational aspects of to Gun Control, development. Essay Comedy! Such an interactive curriculum will reduce the occurrence of misbehaviour, minimize the chance of Say Yes Control, disruptions and ensure maximum productive work. Boekaerts, M., (2002). Bringing about change in define, the classroom: Strengths and weaknesses of the self-regulated learning approach. Learning and Instruction. Say Yes To Gun Control Essays! 12, (6), 589-604. Canter, Lee Canter, Marlene. Parents on Your Side.
Lee Canter and Associates. 1991. Canter, Lee Canter, Marlene. Parents on as i as a cloud, Your Side Workbook. Say Yes To Gun Control! Lee Canter and Associates 1991. Canter, Lee Canter, Marlene. Succeeding With Difficult Students. Lee Canter and Associates.
1993. Canter, Lee Canter, Marlene. Succeeding With Difficult Students Workbook. Lee Canter and Associates. 1993. Charles, C.M. Function! Building Classroom Discipline. Addison Wesley Longman, New York.
1999. Dinsmore, T., (2003, June). Classroom Management. Educational Resource Information Centre. Retrieved May 19, 2004, from http://www.edrs.com. gateway.library.qut.edu.au/Webstore/Download2.cfm?ID=728265PleaseWait=OK. Killen, R., (2003). To Gun Essays! Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice. Tuggerah: Social Science Press. Krause, L., Bochner, S., Duchesne, S. (2003). Of Business Karakowsky Pdf! Educational psychology for Say Yes Essays, learning and teaching.
Southbank: Thomson. Norris, J. Dramatic! A., (2003). Looking at classroom management through social and emotional learning lenses. Say Yes Control Essays! Theory into practice. 42, (4), 313-318. Porter, L. (2000). Behaviour in schools: Theory and practice for teachers. Buckingham: Open University Press. Noll, James. Taking Sides.
Dushkin. As I Wandered As A Cloud! McGraw Hill. 2001. Wong, Harry K Wong, Rosemary. The First Days of School. To Gun Control Essays! Harry Wong. Is this the perfect essay for parataxis, you? Save time and order Learning in Classroom. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Say Yes To Gun? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is Social through Media een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in to Gun Essays de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of of business karakowsky met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Say Yes To Gun Control Essays? Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is define parataxis de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in Say Yes Control hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. On Wilde's? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk.
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Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Cloud? Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in Say Yes to Gun de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Essay Dramatic? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Say Yes Control Essays? Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Doll's Essay? Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Say Yes To Gun? Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is wandered lonely cloud de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of Say Yes VOF.
In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Social Support Media Essay? Het salaris is een kostenpost voor de BV. Say Yes To Gun? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Essay Dramatic? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden.
Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of Say Yes to Gun Control er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of define parataxis door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in to Gun Control de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting.
Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. As I Wandered As A Cloud? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in Say Yes to Gun Essays welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Define Parataxis? Zeker in Say Yes Control Essays een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee.
Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of define parataxis je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of Essays er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of define parataxis reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is Say Yes de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. De cashflow is the context karakowsky pdf positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Say Yes Control Essays? De cashflow is function negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.
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Actus Reus And Mens Rea Essays and Research Papers. Angus can be charged with constructive murder of Chris under section 3A (1) of the Crimes Act 1958 , but the prosecution must prove all the elements of the . Control? offence beyond a reasonable doubt. ACTUS REUS The actus reus requirement for murder is that Angus caused the death of Nothing Gold and Doll's a human being and that his actions were voluntary. Chris, a human being, was an innocent customer who entered the service station and was struck by a bullet from the gun which Angus was holding; he dies as a result of this strike. Say Yes To Gun? Causality , Causation in English law , Crime 797 Words | 3 Pages. Of Business? Actus Reus and Mens Rea Actus reus and mens . rea are two of the Say Yes to Gun Essays, five elements of a crime that the prosecution may have to prove to Nothing Gold Doll's House Essay, get a conviction in a criminal case.
Actus reus is the criminal act. Mens rea is the intent to commit the crime. In general, the more serious a crime is, the more important it is for the prosecution to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, prove that both a criminal act was committed and that there was criminal intent. These more serious crimes are also known as conduct crimes. Not surprisingly, conduct. Of Cell? Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 1637 Words | 4 Pages. CRJ 306 Week 2 DQ 1 Actus Reus and Mens Rea. This work of to Gun CRJ 306 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 Actus Reus and Mens Rea includes: . Distinguish between the terms actus reus and mens rea ; how are they significant in criminal law? Which of the two is more difficult to the context of business pdf, prove in a trial, beyond a reasonable doubt? Fully explain your answers, with authorities. Substantively respond to Say Yes Control Essays, at least two of your classmates' postings.
Law - General Law Mens Rea , Actus Reus , and Concurrence. Please answer the following questions. Actus reus , Answer , Criminal law 429 Words | 3 Pages. Comedy? ? Actus Reus An act is not of itself wicked unless the mind is Say Yes to Gun Essays, wicked also. Gold Can Stay Doll's House? The ACTUS REUS is Say Yes to Gun, . absolutely essential as it is the physical element of the crime, you must prove the ACTUS REUS first before anything else. A person is NEVER punished merely for wrong thinking or evil thoughts. Can be: A positive act A failure to act (omission) All crimes require an Actus Reus . No crime if defendant did not commit the wandered lonely as a cloud, actus reus . MURDER: ACTUS REUS : The unlawful killing of a human being. Say Yes Control? Actus Reus of. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 454 Words | 3 Pages. criminal law-1 ON THE TOPIC:- “relevance mens rea in satautory provisions” PRESENTED BY: - KUMAR MANGALAM . B.A.LLB, 3rd SEMESTER, 2nd YEAR ROLL NO.:- 936 SUBMITTED TO: - father peter ladis Date:- INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TOPIC As a general rule, unless a person has committed the necessary '' actus reus '', one cannot be found guilty; nevertheless there are some exceptions. Now, it is suitable to see that ‘‘ mens rea , in Anglo-American law, criminal intent or evil mind.
In. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 632 Words | 4 Pages. Actus Reus ? The physical element of Can Stay and House a crime: o An act o An omission (failure to act) o A ‘state of affairs’ Conduct, . consequence, circumstances. To complete an offence, mens rea is also needed. Say Yes To Gun Control Essays? Strict liability offences do not require mens rea . A ‘state of affairs’ is an Essay Dramatic Comedy, involuntary act: o Larsonneur 1933- D ordered to leave UK; brought back to Say Yes to Gun Control, UK against her will but Irish police.
Convicted, despite involuntary act. Parataxis? Actus reus must be proved: o R v Deller 1916- D thought he’d mortgaged car, and. Causality , Causation , Criminal law 2024 Words | 7 Pages. FACULTY OF LAW CRIMINAL LAW I UNIT 4 ACTUS * REUS INTRODUCTION The cardinal doctrine of English Law is that . an Essays, Act does not of itself constitute guilt unless the mind is guilty – Actus non facit recum nisi mens sit rea . The maxim draws attention to the 2 essential elements of a crime which are: ( 1) The physical element or the Gold Can Stay In A Essay, _actus _reus – the so – called “condition of to Gun Control Essays illegality “ (2) The mental element or the mens rea – the “condition of the mind “ The general rule. Social Support Media? Actus reus , Common law , Criminal law 1756 Words | 5 Pages. mens rea and delegated legislation. Mens Rea and Say Yes to Gun Essays, delegated legislation Alexandra StoicaMens rea : . the guilty mind of the defendant The difference between s18 and Social through Media Essay, s20 of the Offences against the person act 1861 is the mens rea required. Mens rea must be distinguished from Control, motive. Comedy? Motive can be relevant in some crimes. Intention: can be direct or indirect (oblique) Direct intention- this occurs where the consequence is the defendant’s aim or purpose. An example is Mohan 1976. The.
Act of Parliament , Actus reus , Criminal law 1022 Words | 2 Pages. SCOTTISH LAW BASICS CRIME ACTUS REUS. ?CRIME INTRODUCTION: ACTUS REUS 1. CRIME NATURE a. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit . Say Yes Control? rea – conduct does not make a man guilty without a guilty mind b. Two elements must be proved in parataxis, Scots crime: i. Actus Reus – Wrongful Act/Physical Act ii. Mens Rea – Wrongful State of Mind/Mental Element c. Essays? Exceptionally – some crimes (usually statutory – speeding, parking) don’t require proof of the context karakowsky pdf Mens Rea 2. ACTEUS REUS a. Mere intentions do not make a criminal offence – there must be a criminal act or omission. Actus reus , Assault , Crime 991 Words | 3 Pages. ? Actus Reus AR = the conduct element. To Gun Essays? Prescribes what needs to be done, in what circumstance and with what result (but not . necessarily all three). Result: V is killed (note that we don’t really criminalise results in Essay on Wilde's, themselves, but rather the causation of Say Yes Essays results).
Conduct: in rape: penetration. Circumstance: property belongs to another. All crimes have an AR. It is possible to have missing MR elements but this is not so for AR. Omissions Stephen LJ: “It is not a crime to cause death or injury. Actus reus , Causality , Causation 1555 Words | 5 Pages. Actus reus : the ‘guilty act’ of an offence Chain of causation: Provides a link between the wandered lonely as a, initial act of the D and the . prohibited consequence that has occurred. It forms part of the to Gun, AR: It is wandered lonely cloud, not enough that the prohibited consequences has occurred, it must be caused by the D. * Established by a two-stage test: 1. Factual causation: Only basis, establish a prelimartary connection between act and consequences D’s act must be a sine qua non of the prohibited consequence(consequences would. Acts of the Apostles , Actus reus , Causality 913 Words | 4 Pages. There Are As Many Views On The Mens Rea Of Murder As There Are Cases. ?There are as many views on the mens rea of Say Yes Essays murder as there are cases.
The last 40 years has witnessed a said inability of the . courts to sort it out coherently and precisely. Mens Rea , or “guilty mind,” marks a central distinguishing feature of and Marriage Doll's House criminal law. An injury caused without mens rea might be grounds for civil liability but typically not for criminal. Criminal liability requires not only causing a prohibited harm or evil -- the “ actus reus ” of an offense -- but also a particular state of. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1043 Words | 3 Pages. So what is Control Essays, Actus Reus ? Actus Reus is the conduct of the accused (The defendant). It can be an the context karakowsky pdf, act of . Say Yes To Gun Essays? commission or act of omission, and it must be a voluntary act that causes the damage or harm. Social Through Essay? It can also be a state of affairs. * Commission or act of Omission: A person may incur criminal liability for failing to do that which the law requires him to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, do as much as by as a, doing that which the law prohibits. The actus reus includes the to Gun, state of affairs or circumstances surrounding the commission. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 644 Words | 2 Pages. Mens rea translates to as i lonely as a, guilty mind, it refers to the mental element of a crime.
Mens rea must be . proved alongside actus reus for a defendant (D) to be guilty of an offence. This was set out in Say Yes Control, Woolmington v DPP. Specific intent crimes require proof of a higher level of mens rea (ie intention) because of the moral blameworthiness attached to such crimes, whereas, basic intent crimes require proof only of recklessness. Intention is the highest form of mens rea and has two types, direct and oblique. Crime , Criminal law , Elements of crime 1166 Words | 2 Pages. Judge instructs the jury that it is irrelevant whether Jim knew the as i wandered lonely as a cloud, liquid was vodka because driving while intoxicated is Say Yes to Gun Control, a strict liability offense. Jim’s . attorney contends that if the statute, which imposes a severe punishment without proving any mens rea on the defendant’s part, is a strict –liability statute, it would be unconstitutional. ISSUE The issue in this case is whether Michigan Vehicle Code MCL 257.625 is a strict liability statute?
RULE MICHIGAN VEHICLE CODE (EXCERPT), Act 300 of 1949. Of Cell? Alcoholic beverage , Automobile , Criminal law 1240 Words | 4 Pages. Elliott v C  The case involves the mens rea of recklessness. The defendant was a girl of 14 years old who had low . intelligence. She lit a fire in a shed. The magistrates applied the test laid down in R v Caldwell but inferred that in his reference to an obvious risk Lord Diplock had meant a risk which was obvious to the particular defendant. They acquitted the defendant because they found that the defendant had given no thought at the time to the possibility of there being a risk that. Appeal , Crime , Criminal law 907 Words | 3 Pages. Criminal Liability Actus reus The actus reus of Say Yes to Gun a crime is the voluntary, deliberate act of the . defendant. Function? seen in the case of Hill v baxter 1958- in this case the court gave examples in a situation where a driver of a car would not be driving voluntary e.g. Control Essays? being stung by wandered cloud, a bee and Say Yes Control Essays, being hit on the head by a stone. The actus reus is any act of the function, defendant that is to Gun Control, unlawful and has the consequence of Marriage In A House Essay causing injury to the victim that the law classifies as a wound or grevious bodily harm.
Actus reus , Assault occasioning actual bodily harm , Crime 3820 Words | 13 Pages. Importance of Mens Rea in Current Criminal Law. MENS REA Mens Rea is described as A guilty mind; a guilty or wrongful purpose; a criminal intent; . Guilty knowledge and willfulness.  In criminal law it is the basic principle that a crime consists of a mental element and a physical element. A person's awareness of the to Gun Control, fact that his or her conduct is criminal is the through Essay, mental element, and ? actus reus ' (the act itself) is the physical element. The concept of Mens Rea started its development in the 1600s in England when judges started to say that.
Actus reus , Common law , Crime 1696 Words | 5 Pages. ?AR Problem Question This problem question includes the following areas of law: - Actus Reus (Guilty Act) - Omissions (Failure . to Say Yes Control Essays, Act) - Duty to Act Situations Wood - Actus Reus = Guilty Act. To be criminally liable, the defendant (D) must perform a positive and voluntary act. An Omission (Failure to Act) does not make D liable, however, there are 6 situations in which failure to act may result in on Wilde's, criminal responsibility: 1. Statute 2. Contract 3. Relationship 4. To Gun? Voluntary Assumption 5. Media? Actus reus , Criminal law , Law 576 Words | 2 Pages. Men’s Rea Mens rea is Latin for Essays guilty mind. In criminal law, it is define, viewed as one of the necessary elements . of some crimes. The standard common law test of criminal liability is usually expressed in the Latin phrase, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea , which means the Say Yes to Gun, act is not culpable unless the mind is Dramatic, guilty. Thus, in jurisdictions with due process, there must be an actus reus , or guilty act, accompanied by some level of mens rea to constitute the crime with which the defendant.
Actus reus , Common law , Crime 2834 Words | 8 Pages. 2 The elements of a crime: actus reus and mens rea Introduction The traditional starting point for . the study of Say Yes Control criminal law is the constituents of a criminal offence: actus reus (often referred to as the karakowsky, prohibited conduct, but more accurately described as the external elements of the Control, offence) and as i as a cloud, mens rea (often referred to as the mental element, but more accurately described as the fault element). Commentators and students alike want to to Gun Control, ?nd consistency and certainty in the application and development. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 13473 Words | 35 Pages. Lonely As A Cloud? Mens rea Subjectivity is the recklessness and intention : the mental state of Say Yes to Gun Control Essays d Objectivity negligence compared to a . reasonable mans actions * The mr for murder is did d have malic aforethought : did d have the intention to kill or cause GBH * Recklessness is Gold Can Stay and In A Doll's House Essay, subjective concept with an Control, exception of criminal damage which is objective now but wasn’t before due to HOL decision in r v g because it included an objective standard of as i wandered lonely as a cloud fault * motive and intention is different : Moloney. Conviction , Crime , Criminal law 875 Words | 3 Pages.
ACTUS REUS : OMISSION amp; CAUSATION The general basis for Say Yes to Gun Essays imposing liability in Nothing Marriage House Essay, criminal law is that the defendant must be . proved to Say Yes, have committed a guilty act whilst having had a guilty state of mind. The physical elements are collectively called the actus reus and the accompanied mental state is called the mens rea . It is the fundamental duty of the prosecution to prove both of these elements of the Essay on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, offence to to Gun Essays, the satisfaction of the of cell, judge or jury beyond reasonable doubt. In the Say Yes to Gun, absence. Actus reus , Causality , Crime 3016 Words | 8 Pages. Mens Rea Cheat Sheet: 1) Direct Intent: purpose to cause it = purpose type intent or direct intent. 2) Oblique Intent: . constructed when D does not intend result but foresees its occurrence as a certainty. Can Stay And Doll's? Smith (1990) example: Plane Insurance bombing. 3) Itzhak Kugler (2004): states where there is Control Essays, only a 50% chance of explosion this should be conditional oblique intent and be a form of recklessness rather than intent. Support Through Media? 4) MD (2004): states OI was created to help prosecution fill.
Crime , Criminal law , Mind 1787 Words | 5 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION Mens rea is a technical term, generally taken to mean some blameworthy mental condition, the absence of which on . any particular occasion negatives the Say Yes, condition of crime. Pdf? It is one of the essential ingredients of criminal liability.’ A criminal offence is committed only to Gun when an Nothing Gold and Marriage In A Doll's, act, which is forbidden by law, is done voluntarily. The term mens rea has been given to the volition, which is the motive force behind the crinjinal act.2 An act becomes criminal only when it is done with guilty. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 5704 Words | 14 Pages. for criminal liability which are the “ Actus reus ” and the “ mens rea ” and in order to critically . discuss them, focus will be made on the Homicide offence of ‘murder’ with the to Gun Control Essays, use of relevant Zambian cases. The terms ‘ Actus reus ’ and ‘ Mens rea ’ are derived from the Latin Maxim; “ Actus non facit reum mens sit rea ” which mean that there cannot be such a thing as legal guilt where there is no moral guilt.1 The learned author Simon E Kulusika defines ‘ Actus reus ’ as “whatever act or omission or state. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Mens Rea: Intention and Recklessness Compared. Social Support Through? Compare and contrast intention and recklessness as fault terms governing criminal liability To be guilty of a crime, it is usually expected that the . To Gun Control Essays? defendant has the necessary mens rea or guilty mind, (subject to cases of strict liability.). The level of mens rea required varies for different crimes, to find the mens rea one must look at the specific definition of a crime.
For the purpose of this essay I will first look at on Wilde's Intention and Recklessness and Say Yes, then compare the two as fault terms governing. Academic degree , Actus reus , Crime 2023 Words | 7 Pages. Assault Actus Reus An assault is any act by which someone, intentionally or recklessly, causes another person to of business, apprehend . immediate and personal violence. Mens Rea The Mens Rea for an assault is either the to Gun Control Essays, intention to as i wandered lonely cloud, cause another to fear immediate unlawful personal violence or recklessness as to whether such fear is caused. The test for recklessness is subjective. The Penalty Section 47 of the offences against the persons act 1861 (an assault or battery which causes ABH) carries a maximum. Assault occasioning actual bodily harm , Bodily harm , Common assault 472 Words | 3 Pages. Actus Reus Hill v Baxter (1958) Court gave examples where a driver of a vehicle could not be said to be to doing the act of . driving voluntarily.
These included where a driver lost control of his vehicle because he was stung by a swarm of bees, was struck on the head by a stone or had a heart attack while driving. Larsonneur (1933) The defendant had been ordered to leave the United Kingdom. She decided to go to Eire, but the Irish police deported her and Say Yes to Gun, took her back to the UK. As I As A Cloud? She did not wish. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 10109 Words | 31 Pages. usually have both committed an actus reus (a guilty act) and have a mens rea (a guilty mind) to Say Yes to Gun Control, be . liable for of business a criminal offence; ? criminal offences are not normally committed by Essays, an omission; ? the three main forms of mens rea are intention, recklessness and wandered lonely as a cloud, negligence; ? the doctrine of transferred malice; and ? the requirement that the actus reus and Control Essays, mens rea of a crime should usually both exist at the same point in time. Mental state ( Mens rea ) Mens rea refers to the crime's mental. Actus reus , Crime , Crimes 778 Words | 3 Pages. criminal law that also relates to this case. Criminal liability is when one takes responsibility for committing a crime, and accomplice liability is of cell, when . To Gun Essays? someone helps someone commit a crime. Actus reus means guilty act, mens rea means guilty mind, and concurrence means the equality of rights. The Context Karakowsky Pdf? Actus reus and mens rea are both necessary in Essays, order for a defendant to prove criminal liability.
The Missouri vs. Can Stay And Marriage In A House Essay? Frye case was about a man named Frye who had been arrested for driving on a revoked license. Control Essays? Frye. Parataxis? Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1054 Words | 4 Pages. Kaplan University CJ 230 Professor Shipley October 8, 2011 When investigating crimes, two elements, Mens Rea , the . mental element, and Actus Reus , the physical element, must be present. Mens Rea is “Latin for a guilty mind, or criminal intent in committing the act” (http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ Mens + Rea ). Actus Reus is “Latin for a guilty act.
The actus reus is the Say Yes Essays, act which, in combination with a certain mental state, such as intent or recklessness, constitutes a crime”. Actus reus , Crime , Crimes 830 Words | 3 Pages. criminal action can be divided into actus reus , mens rea and causation. The Context Of Business? Actus . reus compacts with the ‘guilty act’, mens rea with the Say Yes to Gun Essays, ‘guilty mind’ and the causation compacts with the as i lonely, consequences of the actus . In crimes, which require consequence like murder, causation is a essential and imperative element. The absence of causation between the actus and the consequence may render a verdict untenable in spite of the existence of the necessary mens rea and actus reus . The doctrine of causation is Say Yes Control Essays, based.
Actus reus , Causality , Criminal law 1113 Words | 4 Pages. Unit 9 Project MW Kaplan University CJ230-02 Professor Hulvat September 7, 2010 Unit 9 Project There are many different crimes that . people can commit in today’s society. For each crime there is an actus reus , mens rea , and it is classified as either crime against property, crime against Nothing Gold Can Stay Doll's person, or crime against public order. Listed below are kidnapping, robbery, and disorderly conduct. Kidnapping Kidnapping is a crime of Essays unlawfully seizing and carrying away a person by. Assault , Crime , Crimes 1050 Words | 4 Pages. consumption of alcohol but often because of Social Support through his or her use of (other) drugs, or a combination of alcohol and drugs . Intoxication in English law is a . To Gun Control Essays? circumstance which may alter the capacity of a defendant to form mens rea , where a charge is one of specific intent, or may entirely negate mens rea where the intoxication is involuntary. The fact that a defendant is intoxicated in the commission of a crime whether voluntarily or not has never been regarded as a full defence to criminal proceedings (unlike. Actus reus , Assault , Crime 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Expansion of Essay Dramatic Comedy Criminal Responsibility in Nsw. To Gun Control Essays? intention to assist or encourage the commission of an function nucleus, offence by another person. The Crimes Act (NSW) refers to three doctrines of complicity: joint . criminal enterprise, extended common purpose and accessorial liability.
In these contexts, the mens rea and actus reas of the secondary participant must be established in order to Control Essays, amount to complicity with the primary participant. Since complicity is Can Stay In A, substantially governed by common law rather than statute, cases that raise issues of Offences Against the Person. Arrest , Assault , Crime 892 Words | 3 Pages. 1) Issues of Criminal Liability: Actus Reus , Omissions, Causation, Mens Rea , Criminal Liability and . Control? Offences of Strict Liability 6. A duty which arises because the D has set a chain of events in motion R v Miller (1983) - D was squatting, slept with a cigarette, set fire to mattress. He moved to another room without getting help. Charged with Arson.
AO2 Points on Essay, the Law of Omissions: ? Should there be a Good Samaritan law and wider liability? o Yes: Modern, moral responsibilities o No: Could. Actus reus , Causation , Causation in English law 2234 Words | 7 Pages. of a crime. The first of the three is Actus Reus , which is Latin for Guilty Act. Actus Reus is Say Yes Essays, some . form of physical or verbal act that causes outward harm against someone else or something. The Context Karakowsky? For example a person who shoots another person would be considered an Actus Reus . Secondly we have Mens Rea , which is Latin for Guilty Mind. This particular type of element is harder for people to process, much more so than the victim of the crime and the family. Say Yes To Gun Essays? Mens Rea refers to Dramatic Comedy, the mental state of the to Gun, defendant. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal justice 1290 Words | 5 Pages. SEMINAR 1 – ANALYSING A CRIMINAL OFFENCE Mens rea – the mental element of the offence; what does this mean? . Mens rea can be divided up into two elements: (1) intention; and (2) recklessness. Nothing And Marriage Essay? Actus reus – can consist of: (1) an act (2) committed in a certain specified circumstances and Say Yes to Gun Control, (3) leading to the prohibited consequence. Mens rea should exist in the context of business karakowsky, relation to each of these separate elements.
Assault and Control Essays, Battery Battery is the application of unlawful touching or force. Actus reus , Assault , Assault occasioning actual bodily harm 1106 Words | 4 Pages. to this case is the State of California, Superior Court in Los Angeles County, and the Supreme Court of California. Accomplice and Criminal Liability . Accomplice liability is one who assists in the commission of a crime but does not commit the actus reus . An accomplice is often present or directly aids in the commission of the crime. The principle of accomplice liability is parataxis, based on the notion that any individual who aids, abets, encourages, or assists another person to commit a crime should share. Say Yes? Appeal , Crime , Criminal law 940 Words | 3 Pages. The Context Of Business? Explain the Arguments for and Against Strict Liability Offences. not necessary for the prosecution to prove any mens rea . To Gun? In most cases of parataxis strict liability even if one did not have the Control Essays, intent . to commit a crime, however reasonable, in as i wandered as a, relation to a particular element of the actus reus of an offence, they can still be convicted. This can be shown in reference to Prince and Hibbert. Prince (1875) the girl was taken by Prince even though he knew she was in the possession of Essays her father as he believed she was 18.
Mens rea was needed for him to be sentenced and this was. Actus reus , Conviction , Crime 1380 Words | 4 Pages. material Criminal Law Today, the of business karakowsky, following is stated: “There are three essential aspects of all crimes: (1) the criminal act (which, in Say Yes Control, legal parlance, is . termed the actus reus ), (2) a culpable mental state ( mens rea ), and (3) a concurrence of the two. (as shown in the book) Figure 2–1 illustrates the nucleus, relationship between mens rea and actus reus . Essays? Criminality exists when the two concur and where no defense, as characterized in the figure, exists. Defenses in function of cell nucleus, this figure refer to the zone of individual liberties. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 848 Words | 3 Pages. matters: a) The essential legal elements involved in a financial crime and the effect of their presence or absence in such crime. To Gun Control Essays? A person cannot . usually be found guilty of a criminal offence unless two elements are present: an actus reus , Latin for guilty act; and mens rea , Latin for guilty mind. Both these terms actually refer to Essay Comedy, more than just moral guilt, and each has a very specific meaning, which varies according to the crime, but the important thing to remember is that to to Gun, be guilty of an offence. Actus reus , Common law , Crime 1674 Words | 6 Pages. wrongful behaviours achieves two things: retribution and the protection of society. Actus Reus : The guilty act.
To prove . actus reus , the Crown would have to demonstrate that a) there was no consent, b) force was applied. Mens Rea : The guilty mind. Done with criminal intent or knowledge that what he/she did was against the law. Pdf? Objective-If a reasonable person would foresee an Say Yes Control, actus reus that the the context of business karakowsky pdf, actus reus was intended. No thought was given as to what was in the mind of the accused person. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1651 Words | 5 Pages.
Axia College Material Appendix B Mens Rea and Defense Directions Read the seven case scenarios in Box 2.3 on p. 31 in to Gun Essays, . The Courts in Our Criminal Justice System. Through Media? Choose three of the Say Yes Control, seven case scenarios to function, answer. Then, indicate which bulleted case scenarios you selected (1-7). Control Essays? Determine whether the individuals possess mens rea ; if yes, then what type (reckless negligence, culpable negligence, or felony-murder rule). On Wilde's Dramatic? If there is no mens rea , write None.
Then, determine what type. Affirmative defense , Asterisk , Common law 388 Words | 2 Pages. R V Davis Harris, Advice to to Gun Essays, a client (criminal law) relation to your sister, Florence's injury. Firstly we will take into account the actus reus ; your action , which is when you . pulled Florence out of the way. This does not necessarily signify causing harm as it can be seen in the context pdf, light with somebody rushing to work and accidently pushing and hurting somebody in a bus. Such cases could be charged with tortuous liability and Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, not a criminal charge . Secondly the mens rea ; your mental element behind your action , shows clearly that your state of Support through Media Essay mind at. Actus reus , Assault occasioning actual bodily harm , Crime 971 Words | 3 Pages.
Question 1(b) The Latin phrase “ actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea ” implies that an act does not make one . guilty unless the mind is also. Thus, the meaning behind mens rea lies within the mental element of the defendant in a crime. H.L.A. Hart states that “what is crucial is that those whom we punish should have had, when they acted, the normal capacities, physical and Say Yes to Gun Control, mental, for doing what the law requires and abstaining form what it forbids, and a fair opportunity to Nothing Gold and Essay, exercise these capacities. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1559 Words | 4 Pages. elements; the mens rea and the actus reus . The attacker must be found guilty of both in Essays, order to be . sentenced. Jonas's attacker could be charged with the following non fatal offences. Of Business Karakowsky Pdf? The attacker could be charged with common assault under the s39 of the Say Yes to Gun, Criminal Justice Act (1988), being a summary crime he would be trailed in the magistrates court. If found guilty he would receive a maximum of six months imprisonment and/or fine. For the attacker to be found guilty of the actus reus of assault. Actus reus , Assault , Assault occasioning actual bodily harm 2526 Words | 7 Pages. Social Through Media Essay? Topics in Criminal Law May 25, 2010 Abstract Strict liability crimes require no culpable mental state and present a significant exception to to Gun, the . Parataxis? principle that all crimes require a conjunction of action and Say Yes Control, mens rea . Parataxis? Strict liability offenses make it a crime simply to do something, even if the offender has no intention of to Gun violating the law or causing the resulting harm.
Strict liability is parataxis, based philosophically on the presumption that causing harm is in Say Yes, itself blameworthy regardless of the. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal Conduct and Criminal Law. the required mens rea but has engaged in the actus rea . Provide a rationale to support your position. . Crime has been a part of American history for years and Essay on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, will continue to be for Say Yes to Gun Control all time. Criminal laws regulate human conduct and Can Stay and Marriage In A Essay, tell people what they can and to Gun Control Essays, cannot do and, in some instances, what they must do under certain circumstances. Define? Often time’s people do not follow the laws that are put into place in order to protect them and that is where crimes tend to to Gun Control, be committed. Support Essay? Mens rea is known as. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal justice 1471 Words | 2 Pages. offences. Elements of a crime. - Actus Reus is the guilty act.
This is the voluntary commission of an act, or voluntary omission . of Say Yes to Gun Control Essays a duty that breaks the law. Wandered? The important features of the actus reus are: -The act or omission actually took place -It was done by the accused person -That it was voluntary. If a person have a muscular spasm and Control Essays, hit someone during that spasm, they would not be acting voluntarily and therefore the actus reus could not be proved. - Mens Rea is the guilty mind, this means. Actus reus , Crime , Crime prevention 753 Words | 3 Pages. criminal law”. Discuss. Mens Rea refers to the guilty mind required for criminal liability. Intention and recklessness are the . two forms of Mens Rea that are part of most offences and have been the subject of define judicial scrutiny. There is Say Yes to Gun Control, a vast volume of Essay Dramatic Comedy case law on intention and recklessness which demonstrates the problems that courts have had in Say Yes, perfecting an appropriate definition. Mens Rea is concerned with the Gold and Marriage Doll's House Essay, defendants state of mind at the time of the Actus Reus . It is difficult to prove. Actus reus , Appeal , Case law 1087 Words | 3 Pages. and in the doctrine of to Gun Control actus novus interveniens.
A clear distinction is define parataxis, seen in the definitions of an act and omission. When the . actus reus , and mens rea of a crime exists – an act is an Say Yes to Gun Essays, action that have caused harm to a person, or damage to property, while an on Wilde's, omission is where an action that could have reduced or prevented the harm or damage is not taken when the Control Essays, person in define parataxis, under a duty. However, the judges faces difficulty in Say Yes Control Essays, distinction when (1) the actus reus of a crime does not admit. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1612 Words | 5 Pages. burglary, murder, manslaughter, theft, and fraud since this can be proved by Dramatic, the court of law based on Say Yes Control, the evidences provided. The Nature of Nothing Gold Marriage . Actus Reus Crimes Ideally, Adams and his team face criminal offences which when proved beyond a reasonable doubt leads to the pronouncing of criminal liability. The mens reus (guilty act) in combination with the actus reus (guilty mind) culminates into a criminal offence liability law (Ashworth Horder, 2013). The laws are being practiced in different countries. Conviction , Crime , Criminal justice 2577 Words | 10 Pages. Unit 24 - P1 - Describe the Elements of a Crime. Control? detailed examples that are true and relevant to the case to illustrate the meaning of this. Actus Reus – The term . Actus Reus is Latin and loosely translated it means the wicked act. Adams, R v  Devlin J A doctor was charged with easing the passing of a number of elderly patients (some of whom had left bequests to him in their wills) by Nothing Gold Can Stay and Marriage In A House Essay, giving drugs calculated to hasten their deaths.
The Actus Reus in this case is the giving of the drugs. Act – An Act is the physical actions the defendant. Actus reus , Assault , Crime 1126 Words | 4 Pages. Pamela. In order to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, prove criminal liabilities we need to prove Actus reus , Mens rea and Causation. . In the lonely as a cloud, given scenario we see that due to angriness Natalia wanted to frighten her former boyfriend and his new girlfriend, Pamela.
To fulfil her intention she took some petrol and poured it through the letterbox of the house where the Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, couple were living, setting fire to it by using a lighted match. So there is Actus reus and Mens rea existed. Unknown to Natalai Otto and Pamela were absent at the. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal law 1761 Words | 5 Pages. In this paper, I will discuss a recent Supreme Court case, address accomplice liability and criminal liability and how it relates to the case. This paper . will also describe the difference between the various elements of crime, including actus reus , mens rea , and concurrence and define parataxis, how they relate to the case. Say Yes Essays? In the United States, while the of cell, labels of a crime may differ, they all share the to Gun Essays, element of crime and parataxis, define criminal conduct (Criminal Law Today).
In order to convict a defendant of a particular. Criminal law 803 Words | 2 Pages. this case will also me mentioned within this essay, I will define accomplice liability and Say Yes Control, criminal liability and express how it relates to the case that I . will be discussing. The Context Of Business Karakowsky Pdf? The difference between the various elements of crime, including Mens Rea , Actus Reus and Concurrence will be included in this essay with the relations of the within this case. Case Summary Hence, in Say Yes to Gun Control, this case defendant Archie Dixon is the define parataxis, main suspect in a murder case. Actus reus , Crime , Criminal justice 1095 Words | 3 Pages. prosecution must establish the facts and elements of each crime to Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, prove a defendant's guilt. The elements of crime are the basic components of the crime, . and Social, the essential features of that crime specified by law or statute. These elements include actus reus , mens rea , and a concurrence of the two.
To convict the defendant of Essays a particular crime, the prosecution must establish that each of the required elements are present in the facts to prove criminal liability (Schmalleger, Hall, amp; Dolatowski, 2010). Burglary , Crime , Crimes 1690 Words | 5 Pages. The Meaning of Intention in pdf, English Criminal Law. the basic presumption is that mens rea is Say Yes to Gun Essays, required for every offence (‘ actus non fit reus nisi . mens sit rea ’), authority for Social Media Essay which stems from Say Yes to Gun Essays, Sherras v De Rutzen  – “There is on Wilde's Comedy, a presumption that mens rea … is an essential ingredient in every offence; but that presumption is liable to be displaced either by the words of the Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, statute creating the offence or by the subject matter with which it deals, and define parataxis, both must be considered.” This proposition, that mens rea is the default position for Say Yes to Gun Control Essays an. Actus reus , Bodily harm , Crime 1273 Words | 4 Pages.
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Essay: Listening comprehension in to Gun Essays, the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to define listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is to Gun Control discussed. Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for define, EFL learners are illustrated.
Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to to Gun Control improvement, as measured by pre-tests and on Wilde's, post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of to Gun Control Essays listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to Can Stay and House Essay real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the to Gun Control Essays, teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the define, most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Control Essays. Under the Gold Can Stay and In A House, predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of Say Yes to Gun Control listening comprehension was still minor. With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985).
Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to of business karakowsky pdf be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to Say Yes to Gun Essays keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for Social Media Essay, learners to process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Say Yes To Gun Control Essays. Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to define parataxis communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and Say Yes Control Essays, even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Wandered Cloud. Difficulties in Essays, Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the Essay on Wilde's Dramatic, individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in Say Yes to Gun, one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and Media Essay, has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and Control, of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Parataxis. Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).
According to schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. To Gun Control. This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the the context pdf, process of Say Yes to Gun Control Essays interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the Nothing Gold Can Stay and House Essay, knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Say Yes Control Essays. According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by function of cell, the listeners from their repertoire of scripts. This means that the Say Yes to Gun Essays, connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and function nucleus, can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from to Gun Essays target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to lonely as a understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989).
The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is Say Yes to Gun Control potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of Nothing Gold Can Stay and Marriage Doll's House their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to Say Yes to Gun Essays a variety of of business pdf accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only to Gun Control Essays, heard one or two (Ur, 1984).
Therefore, it seems reasonable to Gold In A Doll's conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the accent is very different from Say Yes Control Essays any with which he is parataxis familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is Say Yes Essays that EFL learners are less capable of define perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of Say Yes to Gun Essays its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in parataxis, the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of Say Yes to Gun time required to wandered cloud pronounce an Control Essays, utterance depends upon Nothing and Essay the number of syllables it contains, English is Say Yes Control Essays a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Function Of Cell Nucleus. What this means is Essays that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in define parataxis, each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and to Gun Control Essays, if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of as i lonely as a such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). Say Yes To Gun Control Essays. In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in In A, their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of Say Yes Control Essays phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to Nothing Gold Can Stay Marriage perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only to Gun Control, a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to Essay Dramatic stress location, and the ability to Say Yes perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners’ (p.
38). Of Cell. Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to to Gun Control Essays know how the wandered lonely cloud, sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and to Gun, thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to Essay listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long.
Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to to Gun Essays hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of Social Support Media words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and Control, process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in lonely as a, favour of top-down processing. Say Yes Control Essays. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in Essay on Wilde's Dramatic, others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). Control Essays. In the Social Support Media, researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of Say Yes Essays comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983).
The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the Nothing Gold Can Stay Marriage Doll's, evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is Say Yes Control Essays rather slow until a threshold level is Social reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). Say Yes. Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for as i wandered as a, lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of Say Yes Essays three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and lonely cloud, worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and Say Yes to Gun, advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m.
Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the Nothing Gold In A Doll's Essay, variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984).
Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of Say Yes Control Essays obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is Nothing Gold Can Stay and Essay successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to to Gun Control Essays get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). Gold Can Stay Marriage In A Essay. From the anecdotal evidence in to Gun Control Essays, the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to parataxis redirect their attention to Say Yes Control the task’ (p. 428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of as a cloud their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is Say Yes to Gun Control Essays overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to parataxis interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view.
Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for Say Yes to Gun, learners since it involves serious time constraints on lonely as a cloud processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of Control listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and Essay Dramatic Comedy, interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to Say Yes to Gun create appropriate and on Wilde's Comedy, plausible expectation of Say Yes to Gun what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of and In A Doll's Essay Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the Say Yes Essays, passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and Comedy, only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by Say Yes to Gun Essays, supplying the local cues.
Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and define parataxis, making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2. Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990).
Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of parataxis a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of to Gun foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in Nothing Marriage Doll's House, the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for Dramatic, beginning listeners is to Say Yes to Gun Essays listen to a series of sentences and nucleus, then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001). 3.3.
Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of Say Yes a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to Nothing Gold and Marriage House Essay rely more on Say Yes to Gun Control Essays the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and Essay on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by to Gun Essays, constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). Of Business Karakowsky Pdf. In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the Say Yes Control, listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to the context of business karakowsky notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details.
According to the context karakowsky Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at Say Yes to Gun Control Essays all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy, text; top-down processing helps the listeners to Say Yes Control Essays resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of Dramatic top-down and bottom-up processing. There is to Gun Control Essays continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is function nucleus more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on Essays top-down processing.
In the Social through Media, researches of to Gun Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to Social Media Essay segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. 148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of Say Yes to Gun non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of Essay on Wilde's Comedy incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks.
Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of Say Yes to Gun Control Essays English and found that while students appeared to Support through Media make a simultaneous use of to Gun bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Define Parataxis. Thus, providing background information and to Gun Essays, previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to function of cell nucleus comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on Control Essays top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and of business karakowsky pdf, he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto to Gun Control, a set of of business data that were clearly incompatible.
It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Say Yes, Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. Support Media. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at to Gun Control the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test.
On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the Nothing and Marriage Doll's House, period of listening instruction. In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group.
In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in Say Yes to Gun Control, England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. As I Wandered Cloud. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Say Yes Control Piaget and Essay Dramatic, Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. Say Yes. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Pdf. Operations are associated with personal experience and Say Yes to Gun Essays, are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in of cell, this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to Say Yes the differences between the level of actual development and Social Support, the level of potential development; the level of Control Essays actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of define proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to to Gun Essays the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the the context of business karakowsky, instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of Say Yes Essays learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from Nothing Can Stay and Marriage House students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in Say Yes Control, many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and Gold Can Stay and In A Doll's Essay, hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to to Gun touch and interact with.
In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of the context karakowsky pdf learning experiences which encourages students to get information from to Gun Essays a variety of Essay on Wilde's Dramatic Comedy sources (Harmer, 2001). To Gun Control Essays. In addition, in function of cell nucleus, the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to Say Yes Control encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in wandered lonely cloud, groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. To Gun Control. Research Questions of the Social through, Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Say Yes To Gun Control. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on the context pdf developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in Say Yes to Gun Control Essays, elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on wandered lonely as a cloud listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of to Gun listening instruction, as measured by define parataxis, pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is to Gun Control apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Social Support Media Essay. Therefore, it would be valuable to Say Yes to Gun investigate the effect of Social Media Essay listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners.
The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and Control, interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Essay hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in to Gun, your email box, in wandered as a cloud, as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to to Gun us by a student in Media Essay, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Listening comprehension in Control Essays, the EFL environment . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-listening-comprehension-in-the-efl-environment/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on Gold and Doll's House our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on Say Yes to Gun Essays learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and parataxis, speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the rank of the ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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