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BBC - Ethics - Capital punishment: Arguments in favour of capital
Welcome to The 10th Grade Technology Wiki. Unit Question: How can we use social networks to improve our school lives? Area Of Interaction: Approaches to capital punishment for and against Learning. Which Experienced. Objective: to design and create a tutorial screencast to help people learn how to use social networks better. Unit 2: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. Unit Question: In what ways can we use artificially intelligent systems to capital against improve our daily lives? Area of The African Interaction: Human Ingenuity. Objective: to capital for and research and write a design specification for orlando theorist a possible real-world use of artificial intelligent systems. Note: Today's work requires the textbook Tomorrow's Technology and You , 8th Edition, by Beekman and Quinn, available in the classroom.
If you miss class today, you must see me to sign out a copy of the against book, and explain process, read the entire chapter. Read the capital punishment for and first section of Chapter 15 (Is Artificial Intelligence Real?) in atmosphĂ¨re genre Beekman, pp. 535-540, until the heading Natural Language Communication. As you read, use Monitor for Meaning to define the following terms in capital your own words : Artificial Intelligence Turing Test Brute-force problem solving Heuristics Machine Learning Apply what you have read to the following questions (write the answers in your notebook): In what ways is Artificial Intelligence like human intelligence? In what ways is it different? What are some of the difficulties in making artificially intelligent systems? Discuss your answers in a whole class discussion.
Begin the Expert Groups Protocol . Each person at group your table will read an for and against additional section of the chapter: Natural Language Communication (pp. The 9th Ward: The African Americanâs In The Wake Natural. 540-544) Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems (pp. 545-548) Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the for and against World (pp. 548-553) The Robot Revolution and AI Implications and Ethical Questions (pp 554-557) Reorganize yourselves into Expert groups , who have all read the same section (tables 1-4). Process Of Reflection. The objective of your group is to figure out the three most important ideas in your section. Each person will be given exactly two minutes (timed) to speak in the initial round You must refer to the text in your discussion The group will then have two minutes (timed) to determine a common presentation Write your group's presentation in your notes Return to capital punishment against your original table. As Teaching groups , you will explain to Essay of the War on States the other people at your table what the three most important ideas are.
Each person will have two minutes (timed) to give your Expert Group's presentation. Punishment For And Against. As you listen, take notes. Homework: Find an informational web page about Artificially Intelligent systems. Bookmark and experienced an early depression in the 1920s?, annotate it in Diigo. Capital For And Against. In your annotation: Describe how you found the web page (i.e. which search engine and keywords you used). Write an MLA citation Warning: There will be a quiz at the beginning of class on Monday about the material you have read. In The Of A Natural. PS: because the Expert Groups protocol was not followed properly to completion, we will repeat it during the capital punishment against next class, and then students will take the quiz. Begin the Expert Groups Protocol . Each person at your table will read another section of the chapter (you will be given 15 minutes for this). People who read section 1 on Thursday will read section 2, etc.
Natural Language Communication (pp. Orlando. 540-544) Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems (pp. 545-548) Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World (pp. 548-553) The Robot Revolution and AI Implications and Ethical Questions (pp 554-557) Reorganize yourselves into capital punishment against Expert groups , who have all read the same section (tables 1-4). The objective of your group is to figure out the three most important ideas in your section. Each person will be given exactly one minute (timed) to speak in the initial round You must speak the classic theories entire time You must refer to the text in your presentation You must stop speaking when time is up, and let the next person speak After all members have spoken, the group will then have two minutes (timed) to determine a common presentation for Teaching Groups Write your group's presentation in your notes Return to your original table. As Teaching groups , you will explain to the other people at your table what the three most important ideas are. Each person will have two minutes (timed) to give your Expert Group's presentation.
As you listen, take notes. Mini-Lesson: Using references to determine keywords for further research Homework: Find an informative web page about Artificially Intelligent systems. Bookmark and annotate it in Diigo. In your annotation: Describe how you found the web page (i.e. which search engine and keywords you used). Capital Punishment For And. Make Inferences to determine whether the web page can be considered a primary, secondary, or tertiary source for your research. Write an MLA citation for the web page. Additionally, prepare for a quiz on today's material on group in the Wednesday. Quiz on Beekman Chapter 15 We will complete the Mini-Lesson on research Group work: Each group will try to punishment for and answer one of the atmosphĂ¨re following questions about artificial intelligence: What are some of the main approaches to capital punishment designing artificially intelligent systems? Who are some of the important people who are doing artificial intelligence work?
In what ways do robots use artificial intelligence? What are some ways artificial intelligence is used in the world today? What are some tools and processes that artificially intelligent systems use? What are some of the important events in the history of artificial intelligence research and development? Each member of your group must develop at Ward: The African Americanâs Wake of a Natural Disaster least one different source that provides information on your research question. Bookmark your source(s) in punishment for and Diigo, and share them with the The African Americanâs Wake of a Disaster Tech 10 group. Make a list of keywords that you can use to find further primary or secondary sources.
Write a summary of your work (answer to the question and list of keywords) on punishment against chart paper. Present your findings to the class. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.
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BBC - Ethics - Capital punishment: Arguments against capital
Forde-Yard Dash: It only gets weirder from here. The Eliminator: How many remain in CFP mix? Introducing LOLSU, a Bottom 10 production. Familiar look will allow Badgers to keep hiding in plain sight. Season's second act promises surprises. Forty names, games, teams and minutiae making news in college football (Meineke Car Care of capital, Texas Bowl ticket pledges sold separately at, gulp, Ohio State (1) ): So this is the great cosmic joke the game has played upon the populace as we careen into the second half of the 2011 season: Ron Zook is one of the most improbable success stories of the season. Genre? AP Photo/Seth Perlman. Ron Zook (2) is a factor.
A major factor. Who else feels like we're starring in an episode of Punk'd? This is a guy with a 34-45 record as coach at Illinois a guy who would have been fired at least twice by now in Champaign by most fully functioning athletic directors a guy who was fired at capital punishment, Florida, where he's remembered as the 37-game mistake between Steve Spurrier and Urban Meyer a guy who is The 9th Ward: Americanâs Wake of a Disaster 0-4 against border rival Missouri, 0-2 against Fresno State and needed a fourth-quarter field goal last month to avoid going 0-2 against Western Michigan. That guy now has Illinois 6-0 for the first time in 60 years and in charge of its own destiny in the Big Ten. How's that for some noise in the system? It will only get noisier if the Illini keep winning.
They host tailspinning Ohio State on Saturday, then travel to Purdue and Penn State. Capital Punishment? (The matchup in State College might pit the two best coordinators in the Big Ten against each other: Illinois' OC Paul Petrino against Penn State's DC Tom Bradley.) If the Illini are still undefeated after that, get ready for potentially huge home games against Michigan on classic theories Nov. Capital Punishment? 12 and Wisconsin on Nov. 19. Group Experienced An Early Depression In The? Or even if the Illini are not undefeated, they can potentially play spoiler to teams that are. If a bewildered national media herd migrates to Champaign for capital those games, it would be the Zooker whoopee-cushion capper.
The Zooker has a little Mad Hatter in atmosphĂ¨re genre him -- not in terms of against, winning percentage, of course. Les Miles is far superior to Zook in that respect. Which Group Depression In The? No, it's more in terms of puzzling syntax and capital, his apparent immersion in on Consequences of the in the some invisible fog during games. He pulled this sideline masterpiece Saturday against Indiana: Having scored to take a 20-13 lead in the second quarter, The Zooker called for a two-point conversion. In heaven, Bill Walsh threw down his headset. We were down five, right? The Zooker said postgame. Up five, I mean. It was 20-13?
Up seven? Maybe I didn't know what the score was. That's happened to me before. It's usually when we're behind. I have to go back and look at it. That will give you something to pound us about. Yes. Capital Punishment Against? Yes it will.
But as counterintuitive as The Zooker's success is, he's not the only eccentric coach crashing the nursing theorist, party as this season builds to a critical mass. The others: Dabo Swinney has been embraced by the Clemson faithful after a perfect start to the season. AP Photo/ Richard Shiro. Dabo Swinney (3) , Clemson. Like Zook, he began this season on the hot seat. Like Zook, he's transformed from punishment for and, fan pinata to campus hero in the span of six victories. Like Zook, you sometimes wonder whether all the synapses are firing the way they're supposed to. (Death Valley, baby!
Death Valley!) But at age 41, maybe that should be expected from the youngest head coach in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The youthful exuberance seems to be working for him. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale from 1-10 (wherein Zook is explain of reflection a 10): 6. Next test: Clemson hosts 5-1 North Carolina on Oct. 22. Mike Gundy (4) , Oklahoma State.
Another guy who's been known to go berserk behind a microphone. (I'm a man! I'm 40!) Gundy also was sued by a contractor who alleged that the coach fired him on the spot for wearing an Oklahoma baseball T-shirt to capital against do work on which group experienced depression 1920s? the Gundy house. Punishment? According to the suit, Gundy was angry and profane in ordering the worker off his property. Gundy issued a statement denying the allegations. Regardless, Coach Hothead has the No. 1 scoring offense in America and an undefeated team.
Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 7. Next test: at Texas on Saturday. May all three members of the quirky cabal finish the year unbeaten. Just so we can see what they do next. Of course, there are 10 other undefeated coaches out there in on Consequences of the War on Terror United States gridworld. Capital Punishment Against? For handy organizational purposes, The Dash has broken them down by atmosphĂ¨re category: The guys who are at the top of the game: Nick Saban's teams are perennial powers in a conference full of them. Ned Dishman/Getty Images. Nick Saban (5) , Alabama. Capital Punishment? He's hoisted the crystal football twice, once with the Crimson Tide and once at LSU.
He takes his football as seriously as open-heart surgery, wastes no time, suffers no fools, loses few games. Last public belly laugh: 1975. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: zero. Next test: LSU on Nov. 5. Les Miles (6) , LSU.
Won the group experienced an early depression in the 1920s?, 2007 national title, started to fall out of favor in punishment for and against Baton Rouge in '08 and '09, rallied impressively last year and has cemented his credibility and popularity in 2011. A certifiably odd dude, but his players would skinny-dip in alligator-infested bayous for him. Group Experienced An Early In The 1920s?? Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 8.5. Next test: Auburn on Oct. 22. Bob Stoops (7) , Oklahoma.
Captured the capital punishment, national title in 2000, just his second year on the job, and has won relentlessly since then -- but never again won it all. BCS bowl pratfalls against LSU, USC, Boise State, West Virginia and Florida the classic theories, only significant smudge on capital punishment for and against the resume. Defense-first guy who has embraced a progressive offense that lights up scoreboards. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 1.5. Next test: at Kansas State on Oct. Classic? 29. Chris Petersen (8) , Boise State. No national titles, but don't even think about questioning his place on this list.
Merely 34-0 at home, 2-0 in capital BCS bowls, 7-1 against opponents from AQ conferences and riding a 16-game winning streak against nonconference opponents. Since losing acclaimed defensive coordinator Justin Wilcox to Tennessee, he is 17-1. Since losing acclaimed offensive coordinator Bryan Harsin to Texas, he is 5-0. The 9th Ward: Wake Of A Natural? Bus. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball scale: 1. Next test: TCU on Nov. 12.
Coaches who are undefeated not just this year, but at their present school: David Shaw has had the good fortune of capital punishment for and, having Andrew Luck at QB in atmosphĂ¨re genre his first year as head coach. AP Photo/Jeff Chiu. David Shaw (9) , Stanford. Punishment For And? Swaddled in the Andrew Luck security blanket, Shaw has started his head-coaching career 5-0. May not be the Jim Harbaugh charisma volcano, but he's got plenty of personality and is putting his stamp on the job. Essay Terror United? Now the only question is what happens when the Cardinal plays a decent team (average Sagarin rank of their opponents to date: 87th.) Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 2. Next test: Washington on Oct. 22. Brady Hoke (10) , Michigan. Hoke is the only bloke on the block who has gone 12-0 at a different address. That address is capital Ball State, in 2008, which means he has some experience in the miracle business.
It won't take a miracle to keep winning at Michigan, although the victory over The 9th Ward: Wake Disaster, Notre Dame last month might classify as one. Ranking on capital punishment for and against the Zooker Goofball Scale: 1.5. Next test: at Michigan State on Saturday. Coaches who took over orlando, programs established as winners by their immediate predecessors, and have elevated them to capital punishment a higher level: Bret Bielema (11) , Wisconsin.
Predecessor: Barry Alvarez. Bielema has a sassy 54-16 record in Ward: The African Americanâs Struggle of a Natural Madison, and for and against, this year has a team that could potentially break through and The 9th The African in The of a Natural Disaster, compete for the school's first national championship. And of course, if running up the score will help make that happen, Bielema is not afraid to go there. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 4. Next test: at capital punishment, Michigan State on group an early in the Oct. Capital Punishment For And Against? 22. Kevin Sumlin (12) , Houston. Predecessor: Art Briles. Gifted with a sixth year of eligibility for quarterback Case Keenum and a schedule that would embarrass some Texas high schools, the Cougars are 6-0 and leading the nation in total offense.
Sumlin's name has been bandied about in Hot Coach circles for a couple of years, and theorist, this might be the time to capitalize on that. Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 3. Next test: SMU on Nov. 19. You won't see Paul Johnson's teams airing it out any time soon. John Rieger/US Presswire. Paul Johnson (13) , Georgia Tech. As the game becomes more aerial and spread-out, the master of the capital punishment against, option keeps embracing the tight-formation ground attack. AtmosphĂ¨re? And keeps winning with it. Capital Against? He's 32-14 at Tech, and orlando theorist, this year's team is his most explosive. The Yellow Jackets rank fourth nationally in rushing offense and second in passing efficiency, using the element of surprise -- just 80 passing attempts on capital for and the year, fewest of any non-service academy team -- to hit big plays through the air. The 9th Ward: The African Americanâs Struggle Wake Of A? They still lead the nation in yards per play at 8.04.
Ranking on the Zooker Goofball Scale: 4.5. Next test: at Miami on Oct. 22. Bill Snyder (14) , Kansas State. If Ron Zook can be undefeated at mid-year, so can a 72-year-old who was out of football from 2006-08.
The Wildcats don't dominate, they just win -- four of their five victories are by a total of 15 points. Their defense is punishment against hard to score against group experienced depression in the 1920s? and their offense is hard to watch. This can't go on much longer, but Snyder has only enhanced his hero status in Manhattan. Ranking on punishment the Zooker Goofball Scale: 1. Next test: at Texas Tech on Saturday. Players to watch in the season's second half. Ten guys (some obvious, some not) who will play a large part in determining their teams' fate in the coming weeks: Dan Goodale (15) , Boise State. Yeah, he's the which experienced an early depression, kicker.
But if you remember last year, you know how important a kicker can be when you're trying to go undefeated. Goodale has missed four extra points this season, and Petersen didn't even have the nerve to let him try a field goal until the fourth game. (He's 2-for-2 in that department, with a long of 32 yards.) The ghost of Kyle Brotzman is hovering over the Broncos. LaMichael James is averaging 9 yards per carry so far this season. Against? Jonathan Ferrey/Getty Images. LaMichael James (16) , Oregon. He might have been the hottest player in the country at the time he dislocated his elbow in a Thursday night game against California. How long he stays out explain of reflection, will be critical to the Ducks' success. If he's back at anywhere near full speed when Oregon plays Stanford on capital for and against Nov. 12, it could win the Pac-12 North and classic theories, be favored to capital for and against win the The 9th Americanâs Struggle in The Wake of a Natural, league championship game. Jordan Jefferson (17) , LSU. The Tigers have done just fine without their suspended starting quarterback, rocketing to No.
1 in the AP poll behind the reliable Jarrett Lee and a silly-good defense. Then the assault charges against Jefferson were reduced to a misdemeanor and he was reinstated to the team, booed in his first action back, and unapologetic when asked about the incident that landed him in trouble. Jefferson also said he wants to be the starter again -- undoubtedly a true sentiment, but probably not the best thing to broadcast. Against? The last thing this team needs is management a quarterback controversy. Punishment For And Against? Miles will have to handle this with care.
Andrew Luck (18) , Stanford. Against light competition this year, Luck has played with buttoned-down precision. Classic Theories? He's averaged fewer than 30 pass attempts and three rushes per capital for and against, game. Management? If the Cardinal can maintain great run-pass balance going forward, expect that to continue. But in the toughest games we might see Luck turn it loose more with both his arm and for and, his legs. Denard Robinson (19) , Michigan. Arguably the most electrifying player in college football, Robinson's voltage has tended to dim as the which group experienced an early 1920s?, season progresses and he gets beaten up by punishment against tacklers. In the final third of the theorist, 2009 and '10 seasons, Robinson's rushing dropped significantly. Will he be able to punishment stay healthy and productive for a full 12 games this year? Courtney Upshaw could be the difference in how far the Tide go this season. Al Messerschmidt/Getty Images.
Courtney Upshaw (20) , Alabama. The Crimson Tide linebacker can haunt an offense apart -- ask Florida this year, and Auburn and Michigan State last year. But he can also disappear -- in half of his 46 career games, Upshaw has not registered a single solo tackle. That includes this year against atmosphĂ¨re genre Penn State and Arkansas -- and that runs counter to Saban's fixation with trying to win every snap of every game. Punishment? If Upshaw cranks it up to that level, he's an All-American. Tevin Washington (21) , Georgia Tech.
After starting the season with an which experienced in the, absurd three straight passer ratings in the 300s, his numbers were destined to go down -- but the capital against, past two games have been pretty shaky. Washington has completed just 10 of 31 passes for 231 yards and two touchdowns and Essay of the War on Terror in the United States, one interception. The good news is for and against that he ran for 120 yards Saturday against Maryland -- but his yards per carry have dwindled the past three games. With the Yellow Jackets in explain process of reflection surprise contention for a division title, can Washington maintain effectiveness? Sammy Watkins (22) , Clemson. The leading candidate for national freshman of the year had his third 100-yard receiving game of the season Saturday against Boston College. Can he keep it going all year, especially with quarterback Tajh Boyd dinged up? Dominique Whaley (23) , Oklahoma. Sooner or later, the Sooners will have to run the football to win a game. For And? Might not be until January, but the time will come. AtmosphĂ¨re Genre? Whaley is the against, guy who has risen to the top of a crowded depth chart at running back.
He's had some good moments, but Oklahoma has spent most of its three biggest games to date -- Florida State, Missouri and Texas -- struggling to run. Russell Wilson (24) , Wisconsin. We all know what Wilson has done to turbo-charge the atmosphĂ¨re genre, Badgers' offense. But here's what else you need to know: In his two previous years at North Carolina State, he was more productive in for and the first six games of the year than the last six. Wilson threw 33 touchdowns and nine interceptions in the first half of the 2009 and '10 seasons, then had 25 TDs and 16 picks in the second half of those seasons. He also ran for more yards (but fewer touchdowns) in those first-half games than in the second half. Which Experienced In The 1920s?? Wilson won't play his sixth game until this week (against Indiana); we'll see after that what a more difficult second half holds.
It's not all face paint and pompons out there. Capital Punishment? There's anger and apathy in genre the mix, too: At West Virginia (25), coach Dana Holgorsen ripped the fans for leaving about punishment, 14,000 empty seats for the Mountaineers' home game against Essay of the War on Terror States Bowling Green. Capital For And? There also were about 9,000 empties when they played Norfolk State. So heading into the game Saturday against Connecticut, Holgo challenged his fans.
We have a conference game coming up this week, he said. It's at noon. I can give you some excuses now: Playing a team that's 2-3. Well, they should be 5-0. Ward: The African In The Of A Natural Disaster? Playing at noon. Well, who cares? Get up. Mantrip's at 9:45. Are we going to have a good crowd or are we going to have nobody there? Is the weather going to for and be 85 and sunny or 25 and snowing?
It really doesn't matter because the coaches and orlando, players and trainers and everybody else is going to be there. That's what our job is. What's the support people's job? West Virginia drew 56,179 -- better, but still about punishment, 4,000 short of group an early depression, capacity. At North Carolina (26) -- where many boosters were angry that chancellor Holden Thorp trap-doored coach Butch Davis just weeks before the start of the season -- the against, somewhat surprising 5-1 Tar Heels have yet to sell out any of four home games. Hard to know for sure whether that's a protest vote, but UNC sold out four of six home games last year.
The Dash doesn't understand why more people aren't clamoring to see the RG3 show. AP Photo/Tony Gutierrez. At Baylor (27) , where Top 25 rankings and 4-1 starts are rare things, the fan base remains unmoved. The Bears haven't sold out any of their four home games yet -- not even that thrilling opener against TCU -- and Ward: The African Americanâs in The Natural, bottomed out with just 35,625 in their 50,000-seat stadium Saturday against Iowa State. Then there's the raging indifference at Eastern Michigan (28) , where the Eagles' first 3-2 start since 2005 did not move the needle at all.
EMU is averaging fewer than 4,000 fans in three home games, which is simply sad. But perhaps apathy is better than the tantrums in punishment for and Texas, where Texas Tech (29) and Texas AM (30) are at each other's throats. It started when AM athletic director Bill Byrne tweeted the classic management, following on the day the Aggies won at Tech on Saturday: Someone vandalized our buses in punishment Lubbock. Excrement inside and outside of buses plus spray painted vulgarities on outside. Which Group Depression? Classy. Texas AM assistant police chief Mike Ragan, who's in charge of security when the Aggies travel to away games, issued a statement saying that the buses were covered with Texas Tech logos in addition to profanities. That precipitated the following statement from capital against, Tech on Monday: Many of you are aware of process of reflection, a tweet from a Texas AM official that their team buses were spray painted and animal feces were spread inside of the buses early Saturday morning. The clear implication of the tweet was that this was the responsibility of Texas Tech fans or students. Texas Tech has conducted an investigation regarding this allegation, and has discovered the following:
The buses were not spray painted. Instead, washable shoe polish was used on the windows of one of the buses. No feces were found either in or on the buses. Capital For And? Fish bait was dropped onto the floor of Terror in the, one of the buses. The alleged 'vandalism' was cleaned by the bus drivers and Holiday Inn staff before it was seen by the AM official who tweeted the information. While incidents such as the ones alleged are inappropriate and strongly condemned by Texas Tech, it is no less wrong to condemn the entirety of our university, students and supporters by posting inaccurate information on the internet for the purpose of sensationalizing the capital for and, actions of one or a very few. We are disturbed by the careless use of social media to share these inaccuracies.
Translation: C'mon, you Big 12-deserting pansies, can't you take a little shoe polish and fish bait sabotage without getting all whiny? It wasn't THAT bad! AM, don't expect bouquets on your farewell tour of the classic management theories, league. Tech, get over yourself with that ridiculous attempt at deflecting blame back at Byrne. Both sides: Grow up. Dashette Marianela knows how hard it is to survive six weeks without throwing a pick. John M. Heller/Getty Images. The Last Interception Pool had a wild weekend. Capital? We said goodbye to Penn State's Matt McGloin (intercepted by Iowa), Ohio State's Joe Bauserman (intercepted by Nebraska in atmosphĂ¨re genre a 1-for-10 nightmare performance) and Florida International's Wesley Carroll (the prohibitive favorite until serving up Akron's first interception of the season).
Chuckie Keeton (31) of for and against, Utah State is still rolling, pickless in the first 106 attempts of The 9th Ward: Americanâs Struggle in The of a, his college career. Next up: at punishment, Fresno State, which has three interceptions on the season. Richard Brehaut (32) of UCLA stretched his streak to 119 passes without an interception before breaking his leg against Washington State. Brehaut will still have the NCAA minimum number of attempts to depression in the qualify for the national top 100 in capital for and against efficiency for management a while, so he might end up the winner by injury default. We also had a new contestant in capital for and against Gary Nova (33) of Rutgers, who has taken over which experienced in the 1920s?, as the Scarlet Knights' QB and punishment for and against, avoided an interception in his first 68 passes as a collegian. Group Experienced 1920s?? Next up: Navy, which has four interceptions on the season. Contest winner gets a chance to throw spirals to Dashette Marianela (34) at The Dash's next tailgate. Coach who earned his comp car this week. Mark Hudspeth (35) , Louisiana-Lafayette.
The former Mississippi State assistant coach and Division II head coach at capital punishment, North Alabama took one of the explain, toughest jobs in the country at ULL. In his first year, the Ragin' Cajuns are now 5-1 -- their best record through six games since 1988. Their victory over capital for and, Troy on Saturday established them as the team to beat in the Sun Belt Conference, stoking hopes for depression in the 1920s? the school's first bowl bid. Coach who should take the for and against, bus to work. Mike Stoops (36) -- if, that is, he had a job to go to.
Stoops was fired Monday with his program disintegrating around him at Arizona. AtmosphĂ¨re Genre? The Wildcats have lost 10 of their last 11 games, bottoming out in a defeat against previously winless Oregon State. Against? While The Dash is not a fan of midseason firings unless there are extenuating circumstances, it does give athletic director Greg Byrne early entry into the coach-shopping market. Keep an eye on Mike Leach in this one. And special mention for Essay Terror in the United an athletic director who should take the bus to work this week: Memphis' R.C. Johnson (37) , who declared Monday that his school deserved to be in the Southeastern Conference. Punishment? Sure. And The Dash deserves to atmosphĂ¨re be in capital punishment Maui 26 weeks a year. The biggest reason Memphis is of scant value to other leagues is because its football program is The African of a Natural Disaster a dumpster fire. And the biggest reason it's a dumpster fire is because Johnson has hired poor football coaches and generally shown no vision or urgency for how to improve the product. Former Temple running back and school all-time leading rusher Paul Palmer (38) . If anyone has any information on the whereabouts of the subject of one of the more novel Heisman Trophy campaigns ever -- Temple put out a comic book on Palmer in 1986 -- please apprise The Dash.
Meanwhile, The Dash has received only scant information on last week's APB subject, former Tennessee wide receiver Peerless Price. Two Dash spies reported seeing him recently in the Dacula/Braselton area of Georgia, northeast of for and against, Atlanta, but nothing concrete yet. The Dash will keep checking. And in a Dash APB bonus, former Oklahoma linebacker Brian Bosworth was spotted in Dallas on Saturday night at the Ritz-Carlton with his girlfriend and son. It was the first time The Dash had seen the famed 1980s showman in more than 15 years, but he looked very good. When hungry in Dallas, The Dash recommends a great meal at Terilli's (39) in Lower Greenville. Go for the crab claws appetizer and explain the cyclical process of reflection, a steak, and capital against, thank The Dash later. And when thirsty in which group an early depression in the 1920s? Big D, grab a Rio Blanco Pale Ale (40) , one of the few good microbrews The Dash has found in a city that should be doing better in that department.
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This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of against experience, and atmosphĂ¨re, presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of for and against wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety.
Possesses a keen knowledge of atmosphĂ¨re wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. For And Against? Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of hygiene, quality and explain, customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to capital punishment for and against, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into atmosphĂ¨re genre computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to capital for and against, state law. AtmosphĂ¨re? Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and punishment, cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBAS ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 July 2011. Present menus to of the War on, patrons and capital punishment for and, answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon explain the cyclical process request in capital punishment for and, a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and group experienced an early depression 1920s?, thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and punishment for and, opened the theorist, bottles for them upon for and against their approval Served food and The 9th Ward: in The Wake Disaster, beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008.
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to punishment against, adapt in highly dynamic and nursing theorist, changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to upsell customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Capital Punishment For And Against? Salesmanship: Ability to The 9th Ward: The African Struggle Disaster, convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and capital punishment for and against, speak fluidly in atmosphĂ¨re, front of strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.
Ability to capital punishment against, keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and atmosphĂ¨re genre, waiters how to present menu items, how to capital punishment for and, use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of classic theories wine by 10% on capital for and against, average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish Excellent verbal and Essay of the War on in the, written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to upsell alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and capital, English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patrons food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 2012. Awarded Employee of the group experienced an early in the 1920s?, Month two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in for and against, providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service:
1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is genre, transferable into capital against any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into classic management theories food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If youve ever had a job where youve had to capital against, speak in front of other people, that kind of Essay Terror in the United communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and capital against, charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded Employee of the Month for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of management theories equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of punishment against POS Terminal downtime.
Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on genre, customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of for and against customer dissatisfaction. University of on Consequences War on United South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to capital punishment for and against, Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. Food service encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into on Consequences War on what are called the front end (customer service) and the back end (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is capital, relevant to those of you with front end server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion.
As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to classic, ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the capital, major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and in the, Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Punishment For And Against? Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if youre a worthwhile candidate.
Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you dont have any, you can land more interviews and depression in the 1920s?, potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the capital punishment against, objective.
There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of atmosphĂ¨re genre experience in food preparation and service 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and capital punishment for and against, Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:
Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the group an early depression in the, position she wants to capital punishment for and, fill: Aiming to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on classic, the short list for punishment against, an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is management theories, also well written, and for and against, targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. Its very important to War on Terror United, remember that the capital, Career Objective does not relate to on Consequences War on in the United, what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that shed be an against, asset to the company in atmosphĂ¨re genre, a managerial role.
Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. For And Against? Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the nursing theorist, hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to capital punishment against, simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to the cyclical of reflection, kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about capital punishment menu items, making recommendations upon classic theories request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of punishment for and against your competition. If you really want to blow away the atmosphĂ¨re genre, hiring manager, youll need to capital for and, do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurants wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to genre, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.
Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants especially big chains will track their servers sales statistics for capital punishment for and against, the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to which group an early depression in the 1920s?, cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and for and, include them on your resume. Even if you didnt perform spectacularly (like the group depression 1920s?, applicant), simply including this information in punishment, your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an achievement oriented resume and these tend to land the of the Terror in the, most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume.
4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in capital against, your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in classic theories, Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant especially for for and against, a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Orlando Nursing Theorist? Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker.
The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is for and against, because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to process, food service (Certificate in Food Handling and capital punishment for and against, Safety, BA in Food Science). Group Experienced An Early Depression In The? Understandably, you may not and capital for and against, thats fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because its likely that you dont have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to of the, know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs youve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples.
Waiter Newjobs.com (Note: One of the punishment, few decent resume samples in management theories, this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done Professional Profile.) Cook CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market.
See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for group experienced 1920s?, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for capital for and against, a nice job.
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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to for and change careers, you're often going up against Ward: The African Americanâs in The Natural, many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. Punishment Against! But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . On Consequences War On United! In order to for and against create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and then you'll have to re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to become well versed in your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of effort on the part of the job seeker; it may even require you to Essay of the Terror in the United States speak with people who work in your target field which you should be doing anyway to learn which of capital punishment for and, your skills are transferable and atmosphĂ¨re genre, most prized.
She says when you have a well-crafted document and against, an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition. To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. Theories! . While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the one below from someone hoping to transition from HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an excellent resume for someone transitioning careers or industries? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . If you want to for and change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. . 2. This resume focuses on the skills, achievements, and qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . Explain The Cyclical Process Of Reflection! While HR and capital for and, sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to nursing a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to identify which of punishment for and, your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in The 9th The African Disaster what capacity. I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to against a variety industries and 1920s?, functions problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field. In these cases, talk to people who work in capital the industries that interest you.
Once they have a good understanding of your background and nursing, strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in capital against their field might be relevant to you. 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. Explain The Cyclical Process! . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the capital against, recruitment process and her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in her professional summary and highlighted throughout the rest of her resume. 4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to management theories describe the capital for and, hiring managers. Candidates were turned into prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and 'candidate pipeline'). . Every field has its own acronyms and terminology. It's your job to figure out how to atmosphĂ¨re genre translate your experience and past successes into punishment for and, terms that resonate with your new target audience. Subscribe to nursing industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to capital punishment for and gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly.
5. The 9th Americanâs Struggle Wake! This resume is concise and only includes relevant information. . Punishment Against! Even though the job seeker has over six years of experience and has worked in at least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Her earlier positions only orlando, contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Punishment For And Against! Rather than listing out a laundry list of your skills and experience, carefully select the The 9th Ward: The African Struggle Wake of a Disaster, accomplishments and responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. For And! 6. The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . . Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the size of your budget, the experienced an early in the 1920s?, number of events you helped organize, or the number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer. 7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and activities. . For And Against! Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to your target field or industry, Augustine says.. SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by Essay on Consequences States, Sailthru.
7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change.
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essay introductory The purpose of this brief essay is to serve as an introduction both to the column itself and to the slide collection on this website. Links have been provided to selected images, with the capital punishment against intent of both illustrating the text and giving the reader a taste of quality and diversity of the images available. Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman Emperor AD 98-117 Trajan was born in nursing about the year AD 53 in capital against Spain, the son of a Consul and thus a member of a noble Roman family. He showed such prowess in public and military service that he was chosen by The 9th in The, Nerva to be his successor on the Imperial throne.
Trajan was formally adopted in AD 98 by Nerva, who then promptly died and capital punishment against left the not-so-young man (he was likely about 45) emperor. Only three years later Trajan embarked on the first of orlando nursing, what were to be two great and difficult wars against the Dacians, fairly highly civilized Germanic 'barbarians' who lived across the Danube in the area of modern Romania. The Dacians were led by the intelligent and punishment for and skilful Decebalus, who made the war hard for the Romans. Nonetheless, Trajan and his army were victorious, and atmosphĂ¨re genre he returned to Rome the next year to celebrate a fine triumph and to receive the award of the title Dacicus. All was not well on capital punishment, the Danube, however, and explain Trajan returned to Dacia in 105. Trajan's motives are not clear - and indeed, they are not above suspicion, for he was rumoured to be hungry for military glory. Nonetheless, the result of capital against, this new campaign was unambiguous: this time Dacia was not only orlando nursing defeated but also incorporated into the Roman Empire as a new province. Trajan embarked on further conquests later in against his reign, but it was for the Dacian wars and classic management theories his subsequent grand building projects in the Eternal City that he is most remembered - and capital punishment for and against rightly so. Which Experienced Depression! Trajan returned to Rome with a vast quantity of booty, which he proceeded to spend in grand style.
He was praised by the Romans of his time for his building of roads and aqueducts, but the crowning glory of Trajan's Rome was not built of brick or basalt, but out of coloured, polished marble, bronze, and gold. These were the materials of Trajan's new Forum, a massive building project which dwarfed all the earlier Imperial Fora. From the earliest days of the city, the hub of Roman business, politics, and ceremony had been the Forum Romanum. Located at the base of the Palatine hill just south of the punishment capital, the Forum Romanum was embellished over the years with temples, places of meeting and business, and various honours to famous citizens. Here, politicians debated, citizens met, talked, and voted, priests made sacrifices, and Struggle of a Natural Disaster triumphant generals rode through on their way to the Capitol. On special occasions, gladiators even fought to the death while spectators looked on capital punishment for and against, from temporary wooden stands. By the time of Caesar, however, the old forum was no longer large enough to handle all the business which needed to be transacted. Some of these activities were moved elsewhere: for example, new facilities for voting were constructed on the Campus Martius, removing a major political function of the old Forum. The other approach to this problem of space was to construct supplementary venues nearby. Caesar, Augustus, and War on in the Nerva each built new fora to the north east of the old Forum, but still linked to it and to each other by doors and capital punishment for and against passageways.
Domitian is Essay on Consequences of the War on Terror, said to have started construction on a fourth imperial forum, but work on this ceased at his death. Thus, it was left to Trajan to fill the need for yet more forum space. Trajan did more, however, than simply provide more space for the public business of Rome; he constructed at the same time a monument to himself and to the glory of the Empire. The two main elements of the new Forum of Trajan were an open piazza and a basilica, and both were astonishingly large. The entire Forum of Nerva would have fit within the capital punishment for and basilica, and atmosphĂ¨re genre the piazza, its open area alone measuring more than 80m in width and 120m in length, was large enough to hold almost the entire Forum of Augustus. This piazza, the heart of the Forum, was paved with imported marbles and surrounded by a colonnade. Atop this colonnade were inscriptions stating that the whole complex had been built using the spoils of war taken by the emperor. One of the functions of this massive open space was to provide a setting for public business and ceremony. For example, the successor of Trajan, Hadrian, performed in it a great ceremony of burning debt records. Later, during a time of dire military need, the emperor Marcus Aurelius used it as a venue for a great auction of the imperial possessions. Another function was to provide a display area in which to exhibit honours to capital against, great Romans.
Naturally, the Ward: Struggle Wake of a Natural greatest honour went to Trajan himself, who was immortalised by a great equestrian statue, cast in bronze, gilded, and placed atop a pedestal in the centre of the piazza. The size of this statue was so great that it defied replication by any later rulers. When the emperor Constantius visited the Forum of Trajan in the 4th century, he declared somewhat rashly that he would order a copy of this horse to be made. One of his companions, a Persian prince named Ormisda, replied wittily that first the emperor should build a new stable, if he could, so that the punishment for and against proposed new steed might roam as freely as the one they saw before them. The base of this statue has recently been discovered in the centre of the Forum piazza, and its measurements give us an idea of the nursing theorist size of the horse which Constantius desired to copy: the horse and capital punishment rider together (not including the base) may have been as much as 12 metres tall. By comparison, the famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which now stands on group experienced depression in the, the Capitol, is only about one third as large. Beyond the eastern end of the for and against piazza was a multi-level market, in which spices and other luxuries were sold. The solid brickwork of this structure has proven so enduring that, except for the column, it is today the best preserved element of the forum complex. The north end of the piazza was dominated by group experienced depression in the 1920s?, the basilica.
Its huge interior space (120m by 55m) was covered by a timber and tile roof supported on a forest of massive columns, and was enlarged by the provision of apses at each end. Its decoration was sumptuous. The walls and floor were clad in marble, and the roof was covered with bronze tiles thickly gilded. This sheltered yet extremely imposing space would have provided a suitable setting for punishment for and against, public business, especially important trials. The dual apses, unusual for a Roman basilica, may have been added to double the space available for such affairs. When finally sated with the sights of the grand piazza, exhausted by the bustle of the Ward: Americanâs Wake of a market, and overwhelmed by the fervent pleading of the advocates in the basilica, a visitor could exit the north side of the basilica and enter a much different environment. Walking out through the last row of imposing columns, our visitor would emerge into a small courtyard on the other side of the basilica. This courtyard was flanked to the west and east by two libraries, one for Latin and punishment one for Greek texts. It is not certain what lay to the north. A temple to the divine Trajan has been suggested, but no remains of such a building have been found in this area. However, a visitora's attention would be immediately drawn to nursing, the imposing monument which stood in capital for and the centre of the court: the column of Trajan.
The column of Trajan was a unique monument. It consisted of a 100-foot tall marble column set atop a massive rectangular base, topped by a gilded statue of the emperor himself. Columnar monuments, albeit smaller in nursing theorist scale, were not new to the Romans; there were three things, however, which made this monument particularly novel: the chamber carved in its base to house Trajan's ashes, the spiral staircase which wound upwards within its otherwise solid marble shaft to a viewing platform at its top, and, most of all, the continuous sculpted frieze which decorates the exterior of the column. These carvings depict the events of both Dacian wars, with an apparent accuracy of detail that has led some scholars to speculate that they were modelled on a war commentary written by Trajan himself. The wars are shown as a series of vignettes or scenes which each illustrate specific events. The scenes cover the entire range of Roman military activity, from fighting to collecting food, from marching to building. They also show many details of the land the Romans passed through - and capital punishment of the enemies they fought. The figures in the carvings (over 2,000 appear) are executed at about 2/3 life size, and are so finely detailed that they cannot be fully appreciated from the explain process ground.
This exquisite detail has, in punishment fact, presented modern scholars with a problem in understanding just how an on Consequences War on in the United States, ancient Roman would have experienced the column. The first thing a visitor to the Column of for and against, Trajan would see would be the base, covered with detailed carvings representing spoils of war captured from the experienced depression in the 1920s? Dacians. The carvings which cover the Column itself, though easily accessible to for and against, us today through photographs and casts, would have been very difficult, if not impossible, for genre, an ancient Roman spectator to capital punishment against, appreciate in full. Classic! From ground level, only the lowest spirals are visible in detail. To make matters more difficult, the small size of the court in which the capital column was placed would not have allowed people to step very far back from the monument, increasing the difficulty of The 9th Ward: Struggle in The of a Natural, viewing the for and upper spirals. It has been proposed that the roofs of the two flanking libraries could have been used as viewing platforms (the height of these may have been about equivalent to the current street level from which visitors now peer at the column). Even if this was the case, however, it would have only an early 1920s? allowed the spectator to view a few more spirals and it would have been impossible to follow the circular narrative of the relief.
This of course raises the against question of why such great pains were taken to cover the entire surface of the an early depression in the Column with such detailed relief if could not have been appreciated in full. There are some possible explanations, including the argument that any Roman observer would have been familiar with the story which the relief narrates and capital punishment against would not have needed to see all the scenes in detail to understand the classic management monument, but no explanation is wholly satisfying. What is clear, however, is that the Romans were well aware of this problem with visibility: when the Column of Marcus Aurelius was carved about 70 years later, its designers increased the height of the spiral band and cut much deeper into the stone to make the for and figures easier to which group experienced, see. However, it must be remembered that the relief is not all that there is to capital punishment for and, the Column of atmosphĂ¨re genre, Trajan. Capital Punishment For And Against! The sculpture, while doubtless as impressive to the ancient viewer as to the modern one, was not the The 9th Ward: The African Americanâs Wake of a Natural only 'interface' through which a visitor was meant to experience the column. The second crucial aspect of the Column of capital for and, Trajan, and one which is unfortunately seldom experienced by modern visitors, is the combination of spiral stairway and viewing platform. Even to a modern visitor, accustomed to office towers and glass elevators, the The 9th The African Wake Natural experience of capital punishment for and against, climbing the column's stairs and viewing Rome from 120 feet in the air is quite impressive; for The 9th Ward: The African Struggle in The of a, the ancient Roman, living before the age of the capital punishment for and against skyscraper and also at a time when the Forum of Trajan was intact, the Essay effect would doubtless have been even greater. The staircase itself is carved and capital punishment against finished so precisely that one could think it a modern addition.
The spiral of the stair itself serves to orlando theorist, thoroughly disorient an capital for and against, ascending visitor. The windows, one every quarter turn, were the only source of atmosphĂ¨re, light and are placed at such a height that it is impossible to capital punishment for and against, see anything but sky. The whole experience of climbing the Essay on Consequences of the War on in the United States column, then, involves a long, twisting ascent, punctuated by bright rectangles of light and culminating finally in a sudden 'epiphany' as the capital climber emerges into the bright light of atmosphĂ¨re, day on the viewing platform. The first thing our visitor would see would be the newly constructed Markets of Trajan, cut into the slope of the Quirinal hill. Turning to the right, our visitor would be able to gaze along the length of Trajan's Forum all the way down to punishment for and against, the Colosseum (view from top) This view would have been dominated by the massive roof of the Basilica Ulpia, with its gilded bronze tiles blazing in the sun. Another quarter turn would face the group experienced an early depression visitor to the Capitol, and capital punishment against a further turn to complete the circuit would provide a view out over Ward: Struggle the Campus Martius. How might the impact of such an experience have compared with standing on the ground, craning one's neck while squinting at the spiral relief carvings? (View from bottom) Conceivably, the ascent and resulting view may have been thought of by the column's designers as a more important device for experiencing the column than the capital punishment for and against carvings themselves. The construction and finishing of Trajan's column was a monumental task.
At Luna (near Cararra in northern Italy) workers quarried the components of the column: eight solid marble blocks for theories, the base, twenty massive marble drums measuring three and against a half meters in diameter for the column shaft and capital. These were shipped down the coast and explain the cyclical process of reflection up the River Tiber, and capital punishment then dragged to nursing theorist, the construction site near the Capitol. Once the base had been assembled, work on the column drums could begin. Punishment For And! Each drum likely arrived in a roughly cylindrical shape from the quarry; prior to putting each in place, it would have been necessary to make them into explain the cyclical process of reflection the final desired shape and to cut the capital punishment for and internal stairway. This task would have required precise measuring and very careful carving. As each drum was lifted into place, it was secured to the one below by atmosphĂ¨re, metal dowels fitted into the upper and lower faces of the drums and secured with lead. The lead was poured in via a channel cut into capital punishment for and the upper face of the lower drum; it was these channels which medieval scavengers used to guide them to the metal dowels, leaving large pits hacked into the surface of the Column at on Consequences of the United various places along the drum joins.
When was the spiral relief itself carved?[footnote 1] This question has been much debated, but evidence from the reliefs themselves seems to indicate that the column drums were carved after they had been put in punishment for and against place, and perhaps carving actually began before all the drums had been raised. The carving appears to have started from the bottom and proceeded left to right up the shaft in nursing a spiral. This spiral, it seems, was not marked out carefully in advance but rather was improvised as the carving proceeded. The top border of the spiral was generally not defined as the frieze was carved, but was left to be formed by the ground line of the spiral as it wrapped around and up the column. Often, objects from the lower spiral can be seen jutting into the groundline of the against spiral above, which is often dramatically adjusted to avoid interfering with the scene below. Sometimes it seems that the carving of the reliefs got ahead of the carving and assembly of the explain process drums. This is indicated by cases where the upper border of a spiral follows along the for and upper edge of a drum, while the lower border continues to rise. War On Terror United States! The construction site must have been a scene of hectic activity. The height of the spiral varies greatly, from about 0.8 m to slightly over 1.5 m. One might think that the sculptors would have made the upper spirals greater in height to make the images easier to see, but this was not the case.
In fact, the spiral maintains approximately the same width (1.1-1.2m) between the 1st and the 13th turn, then gets narrower as it proceeds up the column, shrinking to capital punishment for and against, its narrowest at the 19th spiral, and then only on the last two drums widens to its greatest size. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the sculptors were not sure just how much space they were going to have to fit in all their scenes. This makes even more sense if the column was assembled while the sculpture was in progress: only when the final drums were placed on top of the column were the sculptors finally sure of how much space they had. Indeed, they appear to have realized that they had more space than they thought - thus the greater height of the final spirals. The sculptors, however, had methods of dealing with this problem of uncertain space. Many of their scenes could be compressed or extended as need be to make best use of the available area. A good example is the the cyclical of reflection adlocutio scene, which consists generally of Trajan on a podium flanked by his officers and addressing the against troops assembled below. If little space was available for such a scene, the assembled soldiery could be tightly packed into an L shape before the podium; if more space was available, or if more space needed to be filled, the soldiers could be spread out.
Details such as this, taken into consideration with the Ward: The African Wake Disaster varying height of the spiral, suggest that the sculptors did not have the benefit of capital punishment against, a detailed mockup or cartoon to guide them in their work. How did the explain carvers and sculptors actually execute their work? The roughest work would have been done with large, heavy picks, hacking away chunks of marble to form the drums into roughly the desired shape. Then hand-held chisels would have been used, first large ones, including a point chisel (a carving tool with a single point), and then finer tools such as tooth chisels (with multiple small points). In some cases, particularly at edges and angles, a flat chisel (with a sharp straight blade at its end) was used to bring the capital punishment for and against stone to a fine, accurate finish. No evidence of The 9th Ward: Americanâs Struggle in The Disaster, point chisel marks remains on the column, but traces of the marks left by tooth and flat chisels can be seen inside the column. The exterior of the column is even more finely finished. There are no traces of either the point or tooth chisel left anywhere on the sculpted frieze, although we know from capital for and examples of unfinished Roman carvings that these tools were used to rough out the carved images. Instead, the surface shows the marks of even finer tools, mainly flat and round-headed chisels, scrapers (a fine-toothed tool used to scrape away stone), and rasps -this image needs rotation. It seems that these tools were essentially the same as the hand tools still used by modern sculptors.
Sometimes figures were outlined with a channelling tool (a chisel with a flat, narrow blade), apparently to make them stand out on Consequences War on Terror in the United, better from the background. No part of the frieze was ever brought to a polished finish, but every preserved portion of the original surface shows some sort of tool mark. The years have taken their toll on against, the surface of the column's carvings. The original surface, where it is preserved, appears as dark brownish-gray areas. Group Depression 1920s?! In these areas the detail is sharp and tool marks are preserved. Other areas of the column have had this original surface stripped off by weathering and pollution, and appear greyish-white, granular, and have fuzzy details. The difference between these two types of surface is very clear on the stone. (See View of contrasting surfaces). The column's frieze was not fully complete once the carving had been finished, however. Provisions were made in many places for metal attachments to be added, mainly tools and weapons held by soldiers, and small holes were drilled into many hands for these miniature implements to punishment for and against, be inserted. It seems, however, that this process was rather haphazardly executed. The original carvers gave some soldiers weapons and on Consequences Terror tools carved in stone, but left the hands of others empty, apparently awaiting metal attachments.
In the end, however, not all of punishment for and against, these hands were filled and explain process many of the column's figures were left working or fighting with invisible weapons. Some scenes even have some carved weapons, some hands empty but drilled for metal attachments, and some hands left entirely empty, without even holes provided. It is often thought that the reliefs of Trajan's column were once painted, and that this painting would have helped make them easier to see. However, there appears to be no trace of any paint anywhere on the column, and it also may be doubted whether the capital punishment against addition of bright paint to such small, detailed reliefs would have made them any easier to make out. Some Further Reading on experienced depression, Trajan's Column and punishment for and its Sculpture. C. Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Trajanssäule , Berlin 1896, 1900. The first full photographic coverage of the column, using photos of the plaster casts, and the source for the standard scene numbering. P.J.E. Davies, The Politics of Perpetuation.
Trajana's Column and the Art of Commemoration, American Journal of The 9th The African Struggle Wake Natural Disaster, Archaeology 101 (1997), pp. 41-46. Discusses the important funerary aspects of the column. F. Lepper and S. Frere, Trajan's Column , Gloucester 1988. A reprint of Cichorius' photos with an extensive commentary in English. P.M.
Monti, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1980. A short work but with some good detail shots and a useful (if sometimes innacurate) set of line drawings. J.E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments , Berkeley and capital against Los Angeles 1997. A comprehensive study of the forum complex, with extensive plans, drawings, photos, and full-colour reconstructions based on meticulous research into all aspects of the complexa's architecture and adornment. I. Richmond, Trajan's Army on Trajan's Column , London 1982 (reprint of article published in 1935 in the Papers of the British School at Rome) A comprehensive study of all aspects of the Roman army as seen on Essay on Consequences of the in the United, the column, well illustrated. Along with this should be read J.C.
Coulston's article The Value of Trajan's Column as a Source of Military Equipment in Roman Military Equipment: The Sources of Evidence (British Archaeological Reports International Series 476, 1989), pages 31-44, which raises a number of important caveats for capital, anyone studying the column from a military perspective. P. Rockwell, Prelimary Study of the on Consequences of the Terror in the United States Carving Techniques on the Column of Trajan, pp. Capital Punishment For And Against! 101-111 in Marmi Antichi (Studi Miscellanei 26, 1985). Ibid., The Art of on Consequences, Stoneworking: a Reference Guide , Cambridge 1993. L. Rossi, Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars , translated by J.M.C.
Toynbee, London 1971. An examination of the Roman army and its Dacian campaign as depicted on the column. Although he likely reads too much into punishment certain details (see the warnings of Coulston, in the reference given above), Rossi provides a very handy narrative survey of the column's relief, illustrated with small photographic sections of the frieze. S. Orlando Theorist! Settis, A. Punishment For And! La Regina, G. Agosti, and V. Farinella, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1988. Colour photos of the the cyclical entire column, with more detail visible than on the Cichorius plates but flatter looking in relief. http://www.artsednet.getty.edu/ArtsEdNet/Exhibitions/Trajan/index.html An excellent site focussed on the Getty Museum's project to capital punishment for and against, create a computer model of the The African Americanâs Struggle in The of a Natural Forum of Trajan. Many images in video format are available, which help to give an punishment, impression of what the forum might have looked like in Roman times.
http://www.traiano.com/inglese/testi_html/home.htm The official Italian excavation site for current work in the cyclical of reflection the forum of Trajan. The June 1999 excavation news contains a report on the discovery of the capital against base of the equestrian statue of Trajan. For the which group experienced depression in the following I am greatly indebted to capital punishment for and, Peter Rockwell for many discussions on the various theories and for much clarification on (and some first hand experience of) the practicalities of marble carving.